PUGACHEV Yemelyan( The leader of the popular movement, called on his behalf Pugachev)
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Biography PUGACHEV Yemelyan
'Horror XVIII century' - so she called the Empress Catherine II self-my major social upheaval that had occurred in Russia in 34 years of her reign. 'The revolt started a handful of unruly Cossacks, efforts to inexcusable negligence of the authorities, subverting the state, from Siberia to Moscow and from the Kuban to Murom forests' - so wrote about the rebellion led by Pugachev Pushkin. The pre-revolutionary historians have termed the incident in the 1773-1774 years 'Pugachev', Soviet - 'peasant war' ...
. Don Cossack Pugachev Emelyan - the one whose name, regardless of tastes historians will certainly present in the name of the event - was born in the village Zimoveyskoy, was a member of the Seven Years', and then the Russian-Turkish wars
. Bold and enterprising, not inclined to settled life and agricultural work, from an early age he discovered traits of a leader, the desire to stand out among other Cossack. So, . he boasted to fellow saber, . allegedly given him by Peter I, . during his wanderings around the country (after the dismissal of illness from the army) posing as a wealthy merchant, . arrived from Constantinople, . several times escaped from custody and, . Finally, . spring of 1773 at Yaike declared himself miraculously saved from the death of Emperor Peter III,
. Intelligent, resourceful, brave Pugachev embodies the typical features of Russian Cossacks, who correctly guessed Pushkin, who wrote AD Davydov on the copy of his 'History of Pugachev':
. Here's my Pugach - at first glance
. It can be seen: the rogue, Cossack straight!
. At best your detachment
. The sergeant was he a dashing
For Yaik Cossacks emergence of self-mozvannogo emperor, who called to go with him to fight the traitors, the nobility, it was like nel Gia way. It is in the middle of the XVIII ve-ka State has increasingly occurred in their old liberties, introducing the principles of the hated 'regulyarstva'. Only two years before the arrival Pugacheva on Yaik here was brutally crushed by another Cossack revolt. Cossacks decided to use Pugachev in his view, making it virtually held hostage to their. He also assured that occupied the throne, 'Yaik Cossacks will produce the first dignity'. It is in order to create a 'Cossack realm' and be the first estate in the country, replaced the nobility, followed Pugachev Yaik Cossacks. And in fact it was the last in the history of Russian Cossacks attempt to change its position in the political system Rossiyskogo States.
'To be eternally Cossacks' promised Pugachev, and who joined him later, thousands of peasants - it embodied their hope for deliverance from the yoke of serfdom, which grew in the second half of the XVIII century, all the more unbearable. However, Pugachev himself belonged to the peasants without much confidence. For example, the salary of his troops are only Yaik Cossacks, and other content with robbery. Joined hypnotherapy and representatives of some of the Volga peoples struggling for national liberation, the workers of the Ural plants, dreaming of a return to peasant labor, exiled to the Urals Poles. With such diversity of the rebels is not difficult to imagine that in case of victory, they would soon have quarreled, revenue sharing space and equipment. Pugachev is crowned with the royal crown, which inevitably would have reproduced the old system, if only because he did not know any other. But be that as it may, even a brief overview of the events of 1773-1774 years strikes the imagination with its scale, involvement in their tens of thousands of people, the indelible impact of Pugachev left in the minds of contemporaries and successors
. Caught on fertile soil called Pugacheva quickly gathered under his banner of considerable strength, . and, . when in October 1773, news of the uprising reached Petersburg, . three thousand rebel troops, . Armed with two dozen guns, . already besieged Orenburg,
. Sent to rescue the city unit of General Kara in early November was defeated, but part of it went to hypnotherapy. A few days later another detachment of the regular army was defeated, and on November 29, worried about the scale of events, the Empress asked the command of the troops experienced generals AI Bibikov. Meanwhile, the siege dragged on and Orenburg, leaving part of his army, Pugachev went to conquer Yaitsky town. At the same time his 'colonels' Zarubin Chica, Gryaznov and besieged Salavat Yulayev Ufa, Chelyabinsk and Kungur. By the spring uprising in the area were drawn considerable government forces, which are March 22, 1774 in the battle of Tatisheva fortress for the first time gained the upper hand over the Pugachev. About two thousand rebels were killed and another four thousand wounded and taken prisoner. Two days later, under Chesnokova were divided Zarubin Chica and Yulaev and near Yekaterinburg - Pugachev 'Colonel' Beloborodov. Pugachev himself with a small detachment went to the Urals, where a month's time many thousands assembled army.
. Autograph Pugacheva
. Eighth May 1774 he moved to a new campaign and ten days captured several forts, but on May 21 its eight thousandth army was defeated by the king of General de Kolonga
. The remnants of the troops, burning everything in its path, Pugachev moved north to Krasnoufimsk, and then at OSU. June 21 fortress surrendered, opening the way for the rebels Kazan. Taking the path of Votkinsky and Izhevsk factories, Yelabuga, Sarapul, Menzelinsk and other cities and fortresses, Pugachev in early July came to Kazan. July 12-13, the city was captured without much effort, but the fortress continued to defend. To relieve regular troops came under the command of Colonel I. Michelson vybivshie Pugachev from the city. July 15 Pugachev's army was again defeated. Killing about two thousand, ten thousand were taken prisoner, and another six thousand fled their homes.
The remains of the main rebel army crossed the Volga. Again, a detachment from 300-400 people a few weeks turned into many thousands army. Now, the Pugachev opened the way to Moscow, went through the areas where it was supported by the peasants. When news of this panic seized the manor houses and spread to the capital. Things reached the point that Catherine II was ready to lead the very punitive troops. But farmers did not trust the pretender unexpectedly turned south, hoping to find help from the Don Cossacks. On 23 July he took Alatyr and moved to Saransk. July 27 under the bell entered the city, but 30-second left, learning about the approximation of regular troops. Front was Penza. August 2, and he mastered the city and by giving the inhabitants of the salt and copper money, went on. August 6 Pugachev's army reached Saratov, and the next day, residents took the oath 'Emperor Peter III'. Three days later, Pugachev left town and won several victories over the army units loyal to the Government of the Cossacks and Kalmyks, August 21, went to Tsaritsyn. Negotiations with the city guarding the Don Cossacks were unsuccessful, and the battle began, during which it became known on the approximation of the Michelson. Pugachev retreated, but on Aug. 25 at the Salnikov plant was caught. As a result, a fight between a detachment of three thousand regular troops and 9-10-thousand army of two thousand Pugachev's rebels were killed and six thousand were captured. Michelson lost in killed and wounded 90 people. Pugachev himself was soon captured by his own supporters and you-given authority.
From these figures have already seen how violent are these events. But I should add that the parties did not spare each other not only on the battlefield. Thus, in the occupied towns and villages of insurgents purposefully exterminated the nobles and their wives and children, and in case of refusal to recognize the emperor Pugacheva, and indiscriminately - petty officials, merchants, priests, ordinary soldiers and civilians. But the nobility cruelly revenged: after the defeat of the uprising many participants pulled out his nostrils, many whipped, run the gauntlet, branded with hot irons, lag. All the main instigators and leaders of the rebellion, among them the most Pugacheva, awaiting execution.
Pugachev was executed in the Marsh area in Moscow on January 10, 1775. According to eyewitnesses, the impostor was calm and kept his presence of mind to the very end. After the reading of the manifesto of the Empress of the sentence ( 'inflict the death penalty, . namely: quartered, . vzotknut head on a stake, . of the body to spread to parts of the city and put on wheels, . after the same places to burn ')' Executor gave a sign: the executioners rushed to undress him, tore off the white sheep's coat; steel tear sleeves of crimson silk tunic,
. Then he clasped his hands, rolled over on his back, and suddenly a bloody head is hung in the air: the executioner swung her hair '.
Pugachevshchina demonstrated the profound contradictions in the very depths of Russian society. 'Not Pugachev important - wrote AI Bibikov DI. Fonvizin - important general indignation '. The government's response to the uprising of Catherine II were new reforms aimed at strengthening the system of government.