Rastrelli Bartolomeo Carlo( Sculptor)
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Biography Rastrelli Bartolomeo Carlo
Peter King from his youth dreamed of Russia's new capital on the coast. Capital, which will resemble the western city. And life in it will take place on the European order. That is why, as soon as founder of St. Petersburg, the Emperor ordered all the ambassadors to seek and hire in the west of experienced craftsmen, artists, architects. Among the guests was an Italian sculptor Carlo Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1675-1744), lived in Paris. In 1715 he signed a contract that agrees to serve the Tsar Peter the Great: to create the statue, to build houses, produce colorful artificial marble, to invent different machines for the theater. At the end of March 1716 the family arrived at Rastrelli Neva. Peter Stern gave the command to the visitors '... do not lose time in vain and not lived in vain'. Because Bartolomeo Rastrelli, his assistant, Peter and his son Francesco almost the next day started work. Artworks BK Rastrelli characteristic of baroque splendor and opulence. Example - 'Empress Anna Ivanovna with blackamoor' (1733-1741).
After five decades of Francesco Bartolomeo (1700-1771)), becoming a famous Russian architect, has compiled a list of their works. Do not hesitate, he attributed to himself and all those where there was only an assistant father. In fact, for the first 20 years of living in Russia, he has built itself only one palace in St. Petersburg: for the Moldovan Ruler, Prince Dmitri Cantemir. But already this work has brought him success. It is no accident the son of the Ruler, the poet, Russia's ambassador to Britain and France, Antiochus Cantemir in a note to his satire 'To the envy and pride of the nobles zlonravnyh' wrote: 'Rastrelli, the Italian born ... skillful architect: Mladost for years not so much in practice as strong as in the sensitivity of drawings ... '
. Francesco fame as a master of surprising architectural fantasies led the new Russian Empress Anna Ioannovna to command the father and son Rastrelli for her winter home in the Moscow Kremlin, . summer - on the outskirts of Moscow in Lefortovo (1713) and the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg (1733),
. Alas, none of them did not live up to our days.
Palaces have enjoyed since the empress and her entourage, that favorite of the empress, Duke Ernst Biron wished Francesco Rastrelli hastily erected for him two palaces in Kurland: in Madona (1736) and in Mitau (Jelgava, 1738). Here were made the first serious search for a new architectural style, which was finally confirmed through a half decade. For this work, Rastrelli was granted the title of chief architect of the Imperial Court (1738).
However, not having time to complete the finishing Kurland palaces, the architect was forced to hastily return to St. Petersburg. The new ruler - Anna Leopoldovna is bent to have a summer palace on the spot where now stands the Mikhailovsky Castle. To build his confidence was Francesco Rastrelli. Just laid the foundation of how power in Russia has again changed. Empress Elizabeth was the daughter of Peter the Great. Its approximate, of course, did not want to recognize the architect, who was walking recently in pets all hated Biron. Rastrelli was about to leave, but ...
Merry longed to have the new Empress palaces. The scale and opulence of the buildings had to demonstrate strength and power of the state, and wildly decorated facades - hide frustrated Finance. To construct such buildings could only Rastrelli with his indefatigable imagination. Willy nilly, had to apply to him. First thing the architect was told to finish the Summer Palace, this small replica of the famous palace of Louis XIV in Versailles. Then should finish Anichkov Palace on Nevsky Prospect, initiated by the talented Michael Zemtsov. Then make an addition to the Winter Palace, pretty expand the old palace of Tsar Peter the Great in Peterhof and begin making models of the future first female monastery in St. Petersburg.
Creating a new palace at Peterhof began in 1747 and was completed in 1752. Elegant building, stretching for 300 meters, stands on a high bank and facade drawn to land and sea. Well-known art historian and painter of the twentieth century, Alexander Benois wrote, admiring the creation of Rastrelli: 'Peterhof as it was born from sea foam. Peterhof - the residence of the king of the seas'.
Even at full speed were working at Peterhof, and impatient Empress had wished that the chief architect of urgently took part in the restructuring of the old palace in Tsarskoe Selo. Five years worked Rastrelli on the most luxurious country residence of Russian tsars. In addition to the grand palace, stretching for 740 meters, he erected around some more elegant pavilions: the Hermitage, the Grotto, Sliding Hill, Monbizhu. The spring of 1757 Elizabeth proudly showed his new residence to foreign ambassadors in the general chorus of admiration was heard the voice of the Ambassador of France. Surprised Empress turned to him: 'What did not like Mr. Ambassador, what is missing? " And in the silence that the answer was: 'I saw the most important thing ... Decent box for such a great jewels'.
Tsarskoselsky ensemble can rightly be called one of the vertices of Russian Baroque. Style, . Rastrelli, which introduced its distinctive features: it was decorated with all building facades, . and not only the main, . in the West, following the traditions of ancient Russian architecture, . successfully used color; very actively employed rocaille (in the form of shells) fine details,
. These features allow art historians to call the style 'Elizabethan', or 'Rastrelli's baroque'.
He quickly became a fashionable. Many sought to build a house and decorate it in the spirit of Rastrelli. Petersburg princes tortured to death the chief architect of their requests. Them survive the palace of the graph M. Vorontsov on Sadovaya Street (1749), the supplier of the court house on the Moika Shtegelmana G. (1750), Counts Stroganov Palace on Nevsky (1753). During these years Rastrelli was adopted for the drawings of the palace for the empress in Strelna, . constructing a small palace in the Middle Rogatka, . creates a new draft of the Winter Palace, . oversees work in Tsarskoe Selo and the Smolny Convent, . became known as a women's monastery located on next to her tar yard.,
. Told, . that decades later, another famous architect Giacomo Quarenghi, . ardent supporter of strict classicism, . passing the Cathedral of the Smolny Convent, . every time respectfully took off his hat - "It's great architecture!" The temple stood in the center of the cross-court, . formed by cells of the two-storey, . very similar to the small suburban palaces,
. Upward aspiration, slim and elegant huge cathedral seems very easy, capable at any moment to break away from the earth. And the abundance of columns and decorations creates a feeling that he is not built, and fashioned out of stone. Unfortunately, Rastrelli was not able to implement his plan: the interiors were not finished and remained only in the model openwork 140-meter tower. The money needed for the war with Prussia (1756-1762) and for the construction of the new Winter Palace.
The history of its creation is remarkable and that exposes one of the traits Rastrelli. An interesting conversationalist, sociable and friendly, he was well received in society. However, the service of the architect became rigid and even oppressive. Preserved much of its sharp reports of threats to quit work because of lack of experienced craftsmen, the necessary material and false otpisok officials with promises of 'immediately' fix. But for the sake of implementing their plans, he knew how to be patient, diplomatic and even flattering. Elizabeth tortured his endless demands dostroek and alterations in the Old Winter Palace and would not agree on the construction of another. Rastrelli meekly complied with all its vagaries, but also instills the Empress that the construction of a new, sumptuous Winter Palace - her long-cherished dream. And in the end Elizabeth believed him.
Palace laid in 1753 on the site of the former, since Anna Ioannovna, and adjacent buildings. As written in his decree of Empress Elizabeth: 'for the glory of the All-Russia Empire'. Alas, she was not able to see the palace completed. In April 1762 it settled a new Russian Emperor Peter III. The last and most ambitious creation of Rastrelli presents four large square of the corners, connected by wide galleries. Inside - more than a thousand well-dressed rooms. The palace became the main dominant in the city. It is no accident more than a hundred years were forbidden to erect buildings higher than the Winter. Pleased with the emperor awarded the title of chief architect, Major-General and the Order of St.Anne. The first and the only reward for 46 years of faithful service.
After two and a half months of the life of the architect changed. Skinuv husband sat on the throne of Catherine II. And once reigned new interests and new fashion: the French passion encyclopaedists and classicism. Old master magnificent Baroque - Francesco Rastrelli was not necessary court. In vain he offered his services to the Duke of Courland and the King of Prussia. Baroque ended. For the sake of bread had to deal with the sale of paintings, which he brought from Italy.
In October 1770 Rastrelli asked for membership in the St Petersburg Academy of Arts. In January 1771 the Academy 19-S votes against the three adopted recently celebrated chief architect in the voluntary associate of the Academy. And in April the same year he died. Traces of his grave is lost. In 1923, the St. Petersburg area in front of Smolny monastery called the area Rastrelli.