Rumyantsev Pyotr( Earl, Field Marshal)
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Biography Rumyantsev Pyotr
Count Pyotr Rumyantsev at six years was enrolled in the regiment. House to teach literacy and foreign languages, and in 1739-m defined in Russia's embassy in Berlin, apparently believing that living abroad will contribute to its formation. Here, escaped from under the strict supervision of his father's youth is quite distinguished himself as a runaway spender and hung, and was recalled to St. Petersburg to continue his studies in the gentry case. But, apparently, in the capital he had compromised his father's behavior that he had sent him to a distant regiment in Finland. Meanwhile started the Russian-Swedish War, followed by ц-bo world, signed Rumyantsev, Sr.. The text of his brought to the Empress Elizabeth Rumyantsev, Jr., for all the joy in their 18 years of the captains was made directly to the colonels. Important rite moderates, . however, . his passions, . and biographer of the future Marshal D.N.Bantysh-Kamensky describes his pastime: "He excelled daring comrades, . passionately fond of fair sex and was loved by women, . did not know the obstacles and often, . surrounded by soldiers, . in mind triumphed over their adamant, . the battalion trained in the costume of our ancestor before the house of a jealous husband, . paid to another double penalty for any offense and the same day used the right her, . saying, . that he can not complain, . because the forward has already received satisfaction! " The rumor about pranks Pyotr Alexandrovitch reached the Empress, . and she told her father to punish his son, . that general obedient and fulfilled, . samoruchno vent dashing 18-year-old colonel rods,
Spanking hardly changed temper Rumyantsev, but the history of Russia in XVIII century, has provided many opportunities for the application of the accumulated forces. Since the beginning of the Seven Years War, Major General Rumyantsev his actions at first had a decisive victory at promotion of Gross-Egersdorf, . then participated in the campaign in East Prussia, . Capture of Koenigsberg and Tilsit, . excelled at Kunersdorf, . and in 1761 for assault to seize key victory over the Prussian fortress of Kolberg (Kolobrzeg),
. But at that moment, when a report Rumyantsev to storm it was printed in the printing of the Senate, has died, the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. The new emperor summoned him to St. Petersburg, made a commander in chief and ordered to assemble at war with Denmark. In March 1762 Rumyantsev went to Pomerania, and began to prepare the army for a new campaign. Here it and found the news of the uprising in St. Petersburg. The general remained loyal to the oath and did not bring a new, not yet received the news of the death of Peter III. Prisyagnuv as Catherine, he immediately began to ask to resign. However, the Empress replied that he believed in vain, though in favor of the former emperor put him in guilt - on the contrary, it will be adopted 'with that repeal, which is your homeland merit and rank your call'. Perhaps such a benevolent attitude Rumyantsev was obliged to ensure that his sister Praskovya, wife of Earl J. A. Bruce, was the Mistress and close friend of Catherine II (empress devoted to her one of the editions of his memoirs). However, Petr was in no hurry and returned to St. Petersburg until next year, so soon again to leave. Do not hurry with the new appointment and the Empress. It was followed until the end of 1764. But it was one of the most important. Decree of Catherine Rumyantsev became Governor-General of Ukraine and President Malorossiyskoy Board.
Appointment Rumyantsev Ukraine followed the destruction of Hetman, and showed the highest confidence of the Empress, providing him with a lengthy secret instructions. His new mission was primarily to gradually dismantle the vestiges of Ukrainian autonomy and Little Russia to turn an ordinary province of the empire. As a result of his work was finished with a traditional administrative division of Ukraine, from the former Cossack 'outlaws' no trace, here spread serfdom. Rumyantsev also tried a lot to improve the system for collecting taxes from the Ukrainian government, postal service and justice. Simultaneously, he tried to combat alcoholism and from time to time sought for the residents of his region was subject to tax benefits.
However, this 'finest hour' Pyotr Alexandrovitch had come with the beginning of 1768 Russian-Turkish War. True to her first year, he held the post of commander of 2 nd Army, which plans strategists in St. Petersburg has a supportive role. But since at this position he was actively п-.п°. Golitsyn, who commanded the 1 st Army, then to the beginning of the second campaign Rumyantsev atonement for his place. Redefined and significantly strengthening the army, . General in the spring of 1770 went on the offensive and won a series of brilliant victories - first at pockmarked Graves, . and then at Larga, . where the Turks lost about three thousand men against a hundred were killed by Russian and, . Finally, . y r.Kagul,
. In the next few months, Rumyantsev's army successfully moving forward, embracing new and new castle. And although the war continued for several years, during which the captain commander of Russian troops with the same brilliance, her fate was sealed it was at Larga and Cahul. When in July 1774 Rumyantsev signed a peace favorable to Russia, the Empress wrote to him that this' famous service ... before us and the Fatherland '. A year later, during an official celebration in St. Petersburg victory over the Turks Petr Field-Marshal's baton was, . honorary title Transdanubia, . sprinkled with diamond star of the Order of St. Andrew, . laurel wreath and olive branch and, . according to the custom of the time, . five thousand serfs,
A strong, energetic and slightly adventurous nature Rumyantsev was reflected in its innovation as a military leader. He boldly used the tactics of the columns, open order, and dispositions - a square, makes it easier to maneuver forces on the battlefield, the preferred light cavalry to the heavy concentration of artillery was a supporter of a large battery. His views on the generalship, he outlined in 'Instructions' (1761), 'Rite of service' (1770), 'Thoughts' (1777). Largely thanks to him that the Russian army has become one of the strongest in Europe, and its experience has successfully used the AV. Suvorov, GA. Potemkin, and other military leaders.
. Returning after the war to their former duties Ukrainian Governor-General, Rumyantsev, however, soon was somewhat forced into the background to the emergence of Russia's political horizon of a new star - GA Potemkin
. In competition with him was about 20 years to the life of the commander, and when in 1787 a new war with the Turks, not wishing to be in subjection to favorite Rumyantsev said he was ill. But, . disease, . apparently, . was unaffected, . because even after the death of Potemkin, . received in 1794 the appointment of Commander, . which were to crush the rebellion Kosciusko, . Rumyantsev was unable to take his army and led the only formally, . giving the reins of Suvorov, . by the way, . always speaks with reverence about his many years chief,
. Only a month experienced Rumyantsev Catherine II, owe him a part of his fame.
Pyotr Aleksandrovich Rumyantsev-Transdanubian, married to the daughter of Field Marshal Prince Mikhail Golitsyn, had three sons - Nicholas, Sergei and Michael. It was the first of them, born in 1754, the famous diplomat, and later a prominent statesman of the times of Alexander I, Russia is obliged to base its largest libraries ( 'Rumyantsevsky'), now called Russia the state. Around NP Rumyantsev in the late 10's - in the 20-s of the XIX century, formed a circle of scientists - experts in Russian history and antiquities. Through their work survived and saw the light many valuable ancient manuscripts and important documents. From this, "Rumyantsev 'Meeting of the researchers draw the attention of Russian history and the present day.