GARDEN Donasen Alphonse Francois de( Writer)
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Biography GARDEN Donasen Alphonse Francois de
Silent noon April 3, 1768 in a Paris suburb was broken heart-rending cries - running down the street half-dressed, beaten and terrified woman does cursing aristocratic libertines. The cause of her shock to discover it was easy - already known in secular living, . and in police stations dissolute Marquis de Sade, . that in this sacred holiday for Christians, Easter morning, stopped in the square Victoire Rose Keller, . lady of indeterminate occupation, . drove her to a cab to his villa, and there, . responding to violent and strange desires, . beat a woman whip-semihvostkoy with knots at the end, . and then locked her, . so that only a miracle could unlucky jump out the window ..,
. Not the first and, . alas, . not the last such story, . happen to these sinister Marquis, . whose name gave the name of one of the persistent distortions of the human psyche - sadism, . sense of pleasure from the suffering, . which causes another, . - And whose fate and creativity (for the Marquis de Sade was not only 'practice', . but also the theoretician, . writer and philosopher, . substantiated their model of behavior) to the present day makes to think about many things.,
. He was born in Paris in the family of the Comte de Sade, who was, incidentally, some time after in Russia, and the maid of honor Princess de Conde
. There is evidence that in childhood and early youth, he experienced a lot of the arrogance of his own age - the Crown Prince, that he possessed a deep, uncompromising hatred of the mother. In 14 years we have seen it already cavalry school pupil, 15 years old - a junior lieutenant in the Royal Infantry Regiment, and in 1756-1763 years - an active participant in the Seven Years' War, received in 1759 the rank of captain of cavalry. After leaving in 1763 to resign, Garden, with the blessing of the Louis XV and the entire royal family, to marry Mademoiselle de Montreuil - the eldest daughter of the President of the Tax Chamber. However, less than six months after the wedding noble newlyweds to 15 days to conclude the castle tower Vincennes for scandalous behavior in the home visits.
. Soon after de Sade takes place in the Burgundian parliament royal governor general in the provinces of Bresse, Bugey, and other formerly owned by his father after the death of a parent comes into possession of various lands seniorialnoe
After the incident with Rosa Keller Marquis again deprived of freedom, but is a little over a month, and de Sade gets a pardon from the king, confining only 100 louis fine. In 1770, the Marquis returned to military service, . but soon the rank of colonel finally resigns, . and now January 15, 1772, issue the invitations to local nobles to come to his patrimony Lacoste for the premiere of his own comedies ...,
. But so touchingly dignified pastime, . - Despite the most sincere and constant affection for the theatrical performances, . - Could not possibly satisfy the irrepressible nature Marquis, . in which it was difficult to separate the laxity, . characteristic of the French aristocracy of pre-revolutionary years (sm.ocherk 'Dangerous Liaisons' - a novel about the morals of the French aristocracy'), . from progressive disease of the psyche.,
. Twenty-seventh day of June the same year in Marseille, at 10 am, the Marquis de Sade, . 'man, . - Following the descriptions of the police report, . - Well built, . with a resolute expression, . dressed in a gray-blue coat, . vest and pink trousers, . a sword, . hunting knife and a cane in his hand ', . with his valet Latour visited the home of three young ladies of easy virtue and gave them 'active and passive flagellation' (whipped), . perverted sex and treating girls exciting candy,
. The next day, so was dealt another prostitute, and on 1 July, all four of beauty, feeling pain in his stomach, filed a complaint against poisoning and the sexual aggression of de Sade and his servant.
. Consequences 'Marseilles affairs' were loudest
. It was then, apparently, there was talk not only about the sexual whims of the Marquis, but the killings, the bones, buried in the gardens of his luxurious locks, even - about the cannibalism of the new Dracula. Decision of the public prosecutor in Marseilles, the Marquis de Sade and his servant Latour sentenced to public penance on the porch of the cathedral, for what the sentence should have: 'to cut off the head of De Garden on the scaffold, and the aforementioned Latour hanged on the gallows'. But because the accused a few days before the court prudently disappeared, the verdict was announced in absentia, and after the symbolic execution of criminals burnt effigies of both the eyes of the people, the buoyant at the sight of a just retribution.
. But madness is not stopped Marquis
. He kidnaps girls seduces maid, leads mistresses among actresses and respectable ladies. In February 1777 it again in the middle class in the Chц-teau de Vincennes (the death penalty was abolished), and in 1782-m transferred to the Bastille. Here, . as in Vincennes Castle, . He wrote a lot and quickly (as, . in 1785 for 37 days, finishing a novel '120 Days of Sodom, . School or depravity ', . - Roll of paper length of 20 meters in 1787 for 15 days - the story 'The unhappy fate of Virtue', in 1788-m per week - short story 'Eugenie de Franval').,
. Second July 1789, he yells out the window of his prison, that killed prisoners in the Bastille, a lot of encouraging the growth of this popular indignation
. Two days later, de Sade is transferred to a psychiatric hospital Sharpanton.
Revolution frees de Sade. In 1791 he published the novel 'Justine, . or unhappy life of virtue '(2 nd edition), . autumn of that year in the 'Theater of Moliere's' put his drama' The Count Okstiern, . or the consequences of debauchery ', . enthusiastically greeted by the public, . - We are talking about the corruption of the higher strata of society, . hated and despised the revolutionary people,
. Citizen Garden (and how could it be otherwise, In the spirit of the time he had already refused the title) continues to make reading or staging of his plays, publishing stories, novels, fairy tales, exposing the amorality of the aristocracy. The most immoral of them acting as accuser! Moreover, . the end of 1790 it is the Jacobin sections Peak (Place Vendome), . appointed first Commissioner for the formation of cavalry, . then - a member of the Health Assembly of the administrative, . checks the state of health hospitals, . wrote political works (reports, . Offers, . reports),
. Finally, April 13, 1793 Garden of the jury becomes a revolutionary tribunal, and then chairman of the section peak - and there is evidence that he robesperovskogo sickened by the cruelty of terror.
. In December 1793 he again falls into the conclusion
. Here impartial sketch of the Garden is the first time, impressed in rows of prison protocol: "... height is 5 feet 2 inches, the nose is medium in size, small mouth, chin round, hair is ashen, his face oval, his eyes light blue '.
. Thermidorian Reaction returned him his freedom, . to be published (in 1795 published his collection of essays 'Philosophy in the boudoir', . 1797 - 'New Justine, . or unhappy life of virtue, . Annex stories Juliette, . her sisters', . 3rd edition),
. Late 1790-ies he spends in dire necessity, . selling off assets, . lives with his last girlfriend almost attics, . involved in theatrical performances, . getting to 40 sous a day - and yet, in July 1800 go da dare to issue a pamphlet, . directed against Josephine de Beauharnais, . Bonaparte and his entourage,
. And so hostile to creativity and the philosophy of Sade, Napoleon ordered to take the writer under secret surveillance, and in 1801 he is arrested as the author of the 3rd edition of 'Justine' - 'the most terrible of all the lewd novels'. Two years later, Sade is transferred to Sharpanton, . already familiar to him in hospital for the mentally ill, . where he has shown himself an active director, . author, . stage director, . actor, . and if necessary, . then prompter numerous hospital performances (good director of the institution considered their healing) - and at the same time the most anxious patient, . 'cynic and a drunkard', . 'object of general contempt', . as he wrote in his report to the chief doctor of the hospital, . begging and demanding the transfer of de Sade in prison, . custody, . assuring him of all responsibility: "He's not crazy,
. His only disease - sin '.
. Died garden in the evening on Dec. 2, 1814 First-da suddenly - according to medical opinion, from an asthma attack - and was buried in the Catholic rite, he has repeatedly mocked, at the Paris cemetery of San Maurice
. Marquis himself in the deepest impulse of self-abasement deathbed bequeathed to bury his body in the woods so, . that 'traces of the graves will soon disappear completely', . renouncing the most odious of their creations, and concluded: 'I flatter myself as, . that my name be erased from people's memory '.,
. But the Marquis de Sade remember to this day
. His terrible books, . long been banned, . Exposure to the prestigious French series' Library 'Pleiades', . transferred, . read and study worldwide, . and a lot of currents in the philosophy, . Sociology, . Psychology, . Medicine, . art recognize that great sinner as one of his 'fathers'.,
. The modern reader finds in the novels, stories, essays, treatises, piezoelectric sah Sada especially the most outspoken critic of educational ideas
. In bringing to an end-point of thought K.A.Gel-vetsiya of 'own, . personal interest 'as' pervodvizhitele human behavior', . mocking humanistically-starry-eyed notions of the original pre-brodetelnosti human nature 'hapless philosopher' SH.L,
. Montesquieu and other Enlightenment, Garden argued not only that, but the need for the triumph of evil for the sake of enjoying life the most powerful, beautiful and ruthless representatives of the human species. The real reason for this 'war of all against all' refers to the fact Garden, . that in certain places sometimes accumulate "too many people ', . and one of his heroines clarifies, . that the world too many poor people, . and nature will only be thankful, . If from time to time 'weed' this 'garden of God',
. As a result, novels Garden, . which so massively, . painful, . fantastically improbable and mixed blood, . horror, . erotic fantasy, . dying groans, . human excrement and sensuality, . turned into a kind of anti-Utopia domination 'strong' people, . hipster human society, . pity and compassion, . combined into a new race - 'Society of Friends of the crime'.,
. It is hard not to notice at the same time that all the villains of the Garden - rich people, or power: money bags, expensive prostitutes, church hierarchs, princes, monarchs.
. Planar rebellion Marquis de Sade really shook a lot of false idols and new, . awareness prejudice, . showing the complexity and ambiguity of human nature, . the relativity of good and evil - and at the same time gave us the important caveats,
. First of life without a moral absolute - whether we call it God, . categorical imperative or ethical code of civilized man, . against exaggerating the role of biological early, . from the risk of total nihilism, . of life without comparing themselves to 'others', . life from a position of strength, . dividing the discretion of people on the 'right' and 'unnecessary',
. However, the results follow similar principles, with such crushing force were found in the mid-twentieth century, the rise and collapse of fascism in the XVIII century, quite convincingly demonstrated the tragic and senseless life of the Marquis de Sade.
. Monstrously grotesque images of the Garden had, . however, . source not only misguided fantasy author, . but very real, . easily recognizable and even refined prototypes in the aristocratic society of France end of the XVIII century, . This is clearly and vividly told one of the sober minds of the Age of Enlightenment, . older contemporary and compatriot Sada - Choderlos de Laclos.,
|Dionis for GARDEN Donasen Alphonse Francois de
|After reading Juliette can say only one thing - "Do not read this filth" I was sick for two days:)