Adam Smith( Writer, materialist philosopher, literary historian and linguist)
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Biography Adam Smith
. Two years after the death of Adam Smith, British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, . Speaking in Parliament, . remembered that, . whose 'vast knowledge and philosophical approach' enables us to find 'the best resolution of any matter, . associated with the history of trade or with the political economy systems',
. Can hardly be accurately conveys the meaning of works of the great economist, whose ideas have made a genuine revolution in the minds of people. Combined in this man of talent of the writer, philosopher-materialist, a literary historian and linguist like demonstrating the possibility of 'free mind' in the Age of Enlightenment.
. Sixty-seven years of life thinker was so seemingly devoid of spectacular events that biographers have relished every episode, though somehow in violation of the calm and tranquility
. He was born in a small Scottish town of Kirkcaldy. About his childhood and first years of study of Adam Smith, we know almost nothing, except that it was three years old was kidnapped Roma. Hardly a few hours spent outside the home, seriously affected the character of the boy, but this mysterious case of open space fantasy researchers. Actually much of Adam Smith is known only supposedly have 'finish building the' whole periods of his life on indirect evidence.
Fourteen years Smith is coming to Glasgow to study mathematics and philosophy. The brightest and unforgettable impressions left in his brilliant lectures, Francis Hutchinson, who was dubbed 'the father of speculative philosophy in Scotland in modern times'. Hutchison was the first professors of the University of Glasgow began to read his lectures are not in Latin, but in ordinary language, and without any records. His commitment to the principles of 'reasonable' religious and political freedom, unorthodox ideas about right and good in the Supreme Deity, radeyuschem of human happiness, aroused discontent of the old Scottish professors.
. In the 1740-meters at the will of the circumstances - the Scottish universities to annually send some students to study in England - Smith Goes to Oxford
. During this long journey on horseback young man did not stop surprising wealth and prosperity of the local region, so no similarity to economical and restrained Scotland.
. Oxford met him inhospitable: the Scots, where there was quite a bit, feeling uncomfortable, being subjected to constant ridicule, indifference, and even unfair treatment of teachers
. Carried out here six years, Smith considered the most unlucky and incompetent in his life, although he had read a lot and is constantly engaged in self -. It is no accident, he left the university before the deadline, and without receiving a diploma.
Smith returned to Scotland and, abandoning the intention of becoming a priest, he decided to earn a livelihood literary activities. In Edinburgh, he prepared and read the two courses of public lectures on rhetoric and belles-lettres and jurisprudence. However, the texts were not preserved, and the impression they can only draw on memories and synopses of some listeners. One thing is certain - these actions have brought Smith fame and the first official recognition: in 1751 nd he became a professor of logic, as early as next year - a professor of moral philosophy, University of Glasgow. Most likely the 13 years that he taught at the university, Smith lived happily - he, by nature a philosopher, was a stranger to political ambition and desire for greatness. He believed that happiness is available to everyone and does not depend on the position in society, but the real fun give only job satisfaction, peace of mind and physical health. Smith himself lived to old age, to keep a clear mind and extraordinary diligence. Almost until the last few years, it nurtured my mother and cousin. Other relatives in Smith was not: it was said that after the disappointment suffered in early youth, he always left the thought of marriage.
Lecturer Smith was extremely popular. His course, which consisted of natural history, theology, ethics, law and politics, gathered many listeners who came even from distant villages. The next day new lecture hotly debated in the clubs and literary societies, Glasgow. Admirers Smith not only repeated the expression of his idol, but even just trying to imitate his way of speaking, the peculiarities of pronunciation.
. Meanwhile, Smith is hardly resembled an eloquent speaker: the voice of been harsh, diction is not very distinct, at times he almost stuttered
. There were a lot of talk about his absent-mindedness. Sometimes the surrounding noticed that Smith, though talking to himself, and appears on the face smile. If at such moments anyone called him, trying to engage in conversation, he immediately began to hold forth and not stop until until lecturing all he knew about the subject of discussion. But if someone has expressed doubt in his argument, Smith instantly disowned just said and with the same ardor urged in the opposite.
. In 1752 Smith became friends with the other great Scottish philosopher, historian and economist David Hume
. In many respects they were similar: both were interested in ethics and political economy, had an inquisitive mind. Some brilliant conjectures Hume have been further developed and embodied in the writings of Smith.
. In 1759 Smith published his first essay, . brought him fame, . - 'Theory of Moral Sentiments', . which sought to prove, . that humans have a sense of sympathy for others, . and which prompts him to follow the moral principles,
. Immediately after the exit of the Hume wrote to his friend with his characteristic irony: "In fact, nothing more suggestive of the error than the approval of the majority. I turn to the presentation of sad news that your book is very unhappy, for excessive admiration of the public deserve '.
. Smith became so popular that soon after the publication of 'Theory' has received a proposal from the Duke Bakleyskogo accompany his family on a trip to Europe
. The arguments to compel respect for the professor to quit university chair and the usual social circle were weighing: Duke promised him 300 pounds a year, not only for the trip, but after that it was particularly attractive. Permanent retirement until death removes the need to earn a livelihood.
. Travel lasted almost three years, but the researcher, who intended to restore it in detail, be disappointed: Smith is not a diary, not written notes
. They left England in 1764, visited Paris, in Toulouse, in other cities in southern France, in Genoa. The months spent in Paris, remembered a long time - here Smith met almost all the outstanding philosophers and writers of the era. He met with D'Alembert, Helvetius, but particularly friendly with Turgot - a brilliant economist, the future General of the Treasury. Poor knowledge of French did not stop Smith for a long time to talk with him about the political economy. In their view had much in common: the idea of free trade, limiting state intervention in the economy.
. Back home, Adam Smith, secluded in the old family home, work full time on the main book of his life
. Nearly ten years flew almost alone. In letters to Hume Smith mentions the long walks on the beach, where nothing interfered with reflections. In 1776 was published 'Study on the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations' - work, combining abstract theory with detailed characteristic features of the development of trade and production. His critique of mercantilism was not an abstract argument: he describes the economic system, in which he lived, and showed its unsuitability to the new conditions. Probably helped the observations made earlier in Glasgow, then a provincial town, gradually became the largest commercial and industrial center. As aptly remarked one of his contemporaries, here after 1750 'in the streets could not see a single beggar, each child was engaged in business'.
. Smith had first sought to dispel misconceptions and economic policies of mercantilism, . imply the artificial promotion of the state of individual industries, . but he managed to bring their views into the system and apply it to reality,
. He defended the freedom of trade and 'laisser-faire' (non-interference; here - non-intervention in the economy), . because he believed: they only provide the most favorable conditions for obtaining the greatest profit, . hence, . will contribute to the prosperity of society,
. Smith believed that the functions of the state to reduce only to defend the country against external enemies, fight against criminals and the organization of the business, which is beyond the power of individuals.
. Now, after the publication of 'The Wealth of Nations', Smith came to London met with loud public interest and admiration of
. But the most enthusiastic admirer of his was William Pitt the Younger. He was not even 18 and when the book was published by Adam Smith, largely shape the views of the future prime minister, who tried to realize in practice the main principles of economic theory and Adam Smith. In 1787 - Smith's last visit to London - he had to attend the luncheon, attended by many prominent politicians. Smith came in last. Immediately, they all rose, while welcoming the distinguished guest. 'Sit down, gentlemen' - he said, embarrassed by such attention. 'No, - said Pitt - we will remain standing until you sit down, because all of us - your students'. 'What a remarkable man Pitt, - exclaimed Adam Smith later - he understands my ideas better than I do! "
Recent years have been painted in dark, melancholic tone. With the death of Mother Smith had lost the desire to live, best left behind. Honor not replaced departed friends. On the eve of his death, Smith ordered the burning of all the unfinished manuscript, as if reminding of contempt for the vanity, and vanity.
. High passions without
. For the sounds of life are not spare,
. He could not iambic from trochaic,
. As we have struggled, to distinguish.
. Scolded Homer, Theocritus,
. But read Adam Smith,
. And there was a profound economist,
. That is, able to judge whether
. As a nation gets richer
. And the living, and why
. You do not need gold to him,
. When the product is simple.
. Pushkin 'Eugene Onegin'
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