STERNA Lawrence( Writer)
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Biography STERNA Lawrence
In January 1760 in the literary life of London remarkable event took place. At Pall Mall in a bookshop, Robert and James Dodsli appeared the first two volumes of the novel with unpretentious name - "Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, gentleman '. Place of publication was not specified: the novel was published in late 1759 in York, and books in the provincial capital, were poorly. And the author's name, as if often happened on the front page did not appear.
The book sold out briskly, thanks in part to praise famous actor Garrick. So when the author of the novel - an unknown provincial priest Laurence Sterne arrived in London, said the store Dodsli instance of 'Tristram Shandy', he was told that the book is for any money can not buy.
That was the beginning of fabulous success. The apartment has a new favorite reading public in his own words, 'all the time crowded important people, the foremost princes vied with each other trying to ... civilities'. Thomas Gray, author, and we became famous for transfer Zhukovsky 'Rural Cemetery', nu-Shet, in April 1760 that 'Tristram Shandy' 'is universally admired, as well as its creator. At lunch, which is expected to Stern, and invited two weeks in advance '. Garrick Stern gives his box at the theater Dryuri Lane. Great Reynolds wrote his portrait at the request of Lord Ossorio. No less great Hogarth agrees to do the illustrations for the next edition of 'Tristram Shandy'. At the end of his stay in London, Stern even honored to be represented to the court.
. If a trip to London for money from Stern was found and he was simply brought here in his carriage landowner Steven Croft, . now, . three months after the tumultuous life in the capital, . he, . seduced and famous, . returns to New York in its own elegant carriages,
But fame is no longer young and very sick man: Stern was at that time 46 years old and he suffered grievously from consumption. Nevertheless, over the last allotted to him by fate eight years he managed to create more than in all previous life and took a firm place in history, setting off a whole literary trend.
Stern is survived by his then nine-mov 'Tristram Shandy' (1759-1767), four small volumes 'Sermons of Mr. Yorick' (1760-1761), 'Sentimental Journey through France and Italy' (1768). Posthumously published three volumes of sermons, 'Letters to Eliza' and 'Diary for Eliza'. All that Stern is written first-person memoir and the form has an insidious persuasiveness: the distance between the hero-narrator and the real author of the book at times almost indistinguishable. No wonder the Roman writer Apuleius wanted to judge for misconduct by his character. Something similar happened with Sterne. Personalities of his heroes - Tristram and Yorick - permanently fused in the perception of many generations of readers with the personality of their creator: not by chance that one of the early Russian translations 'Sentimental Journey' was entitled 'Sternovo sensitive journey under the name of Yorick',
In many ways, this contributed to the writer himself. Concept zhiznetvorchestvo literary historians associate with the era of Romanticism and, later, the symbolism. But perhaps one of the first to consciously and consistently blurring the distinction between creativity and life is Laurence Sterne. In his writings he sought to bring imaginary time to real events, but in everyday life seemed to get used to created them as an artistic image. And he had two Role: veselchak Harlequin and melancholic Pierrot - Tristram and Yorick. Take the letters Stern - a frivolous eccentric (a university friend Holl Stephenson, Garrick, Lord Shelburne, mysterious Hanne), then languidly sensitive (his late love, Eliza Draper and her friends James).
Nevertheless, in Stern, respects anticipated in Romanticism, was not tragic recklessly characteristic of almost all representatives of this trend. Perhaps, in the main not correct textbook response, this writer Heine: 'He is William Shakespeare, and his, Laurence Sterne, also raised the Muses on Parnassus. But in women's custom, they soon spoiled his caresses his. He was the darling of the pale goddess of tragedy, . once, . in a fit of brutal tenderness she kissed his young heart so much, . so passionately, . so lovingly, . that it started to bleed, and suddenly come upon all the suffering of this world and turned the infinite pity,
. The poor young poet's heart! But the youngest daughter of Mnemosyne, . pink goddess jokes quickly ran up to him and, . regretfully caught a boy in his arms, . tried to cheer him with laughter and singing, . and gave him a toy instead of a comic mask and clownish bells, . and tenderly kissed him on the lips, . and imprinted on them all his frivolity, . all his mischievous merriment, . all his mischievous wit,
. And since then, Stern's heart and lips fell into a strange contradiction: when his heart is tragically upset and he wants to express its deepest, . Bleeding heartfelt feelings, . his lips, . to his own amazement, . laughing, fall off very funny words',
. In some ways the most important personality of Stern is incompatible with the notion of 'romantic nature', 'romantic genius'. Stern eagerly seek harmony, and laughter honored one of the most important means of achieving. Opening its first Ro-man dedication to William Pitt, Stern admits: 'We firmly believe that every time we smile, and even more so when we laugh - we smile and laugh our a few things added to the short-lived our lives'.
About Sterne composed many stories, sometimes the most absurd and fantastic. Released even a collection of 'Yorkshire jokes "(1898), written by the son of that same Stephen Croft, in a carriage which Stern went to eat his first London success. There just are not inventions, such as this: Stern when he was the vicar sattonskim, going to church, I saw a flock of ducks, a gun and ran, forgetting everything in the world, allegedly engaged in hunting, leaving the congregation in anticipation of bleak.
Perhaps most significantly on the earlier period of his life told the writer himself in the laconic memoir for her daughter Lydia. From them we learn about the endless moving a large family of Ensign Roger Stern, . during which were born and died young sisters and brothers Lawrence, his teaching at Cambridge in the means of wealthy families; taking holy orders (not by vocation, . but in everyday necessary) - is almost inevitable if inheritance of the children in poorer noble families - and the 22-ies monotonous, . routine life of a village priest in a small village of Sutton-on-de-Forest, near York,
. After their brilliant debut in London may have seemed truly miraculous.
None of the novel after 'Pamela' and Richardson's 'Tom Jones' Fielding was not so rapid success with the readers of capital. However, the popularity of 'Tristram Shandy' was initially somewhat scandalous properties. In the product Stern first saw buffoonery and buffondu, the desire to shock the audience, a mixture of wit with indecency. Few guessed in a fashionable author of the book genius writer, who is destined to influence the fate of the European novel.
Art style Stern was disappointing unexpected: apparently, the very title of his first works must promise a traditional biography of the hero. But the thoroughness of this novel Stern brings to the absurd - the hero is born only in the middle of the third volume, . and in the ninth, . last, . barely reaches the age of five, . so that by the end of the narrative discussed - is not it time to change Tristram child's dress pants on,
. Attention of the narrator does not focus on himself - in most episodes of the book Tristram-child did not participate - and in its surroundings, life and customs Shandy Hall. And here - in contrast to the novels of Defoe, Fielding, Smolleta - we will not see a broad panorama of English life: roads, restaurants, fashionable resorts, inns, kaleidoscopic shifts of various ranks and professions. Before us is a toy little world, where few people live inhabiting his own amusement and illusions, which became for them a second reality. Each member of the Shandy family has its own quirk: no accident that this very name means in Yorkshire dialect 'geezer', 'without a king in the head'. Uncle Toby and his servant, Corporal Trim selflessly devoted to children's game of war, far more important to them than the events of the original. Numerous eccentricity and manic ideas determine the actions and thoughts of Walter Shandy. However, affected in the novel is not illusory, . but extremely important for the Enlightenment questions, . associated with the formation of personality: the time of conception and the way the appearance of a baby born, . legal and moral norms of marriage, . profanation of religious ceremonies, . helplessness pedagogical treatises, . choose a mentor and his role in the upbringing of the child.,
. But there is another narrative work plan: the first time in the history of European literature Stern combines two novel memoirs of time - time of the event and the time to describe it: in 'Tristram Shandy' recreated not only the pictures of the life of Shandy Hall pores childhood hero, . but the identity of the narrator, . already in middle age writing his memoirs,
All this contradicts the rules of plot construction and educational novel - readers 'Tristram Shandy' and was not destined to wait, and when will the usual development of. But, most importantly, Stern saw 'life' in the ordinary and insignificant - that he had not been the main subject of the image in the prose. But to a deeply uninteresting and re-open the inner world of people, Stern needed a different scale, capable of close-ups show the facial expression, gesture, intonation, in memory ...
But remember the name of the novel - this is not the traditional 'life and adventures', and 'life and views of' the hero. And the characters in the arguments about various things constantly deal with all the same exciting questions: the 'human nature', the rational and emotional approach to life phenomena of altruism and selfishness, tolerance and religious fanaticism. The philosophical center of the novel became a sermon on the text of the Stern 'For we are confident that we have a good conscience ...', he read at York Cathedral, and published a separate edition for another ten years before writing the novel. In her in a purely journalistic form formulated those thoughts which are embodied in the characters of the actors. Stern not only parodies the style include a narrative didactic reasoning, but also calls into question the very content of educational truths.
Reading novels, we are often so carried away, and shifting thoughts and feelings in a fictional world, forgetting that he was only conditional, essays, poetry. Author of 'Tristram Shandy' does not allow to believe in this illusion. Interspersed the story of a family Shandy and didactic commentary outlining its theoretical and literary views, Stern deliberately destroys the closed world of the novel, exposes the conventionality of what is happening. Before our eyes, green lawn uncle Toby, suddenly transformed into a theatrical scenery, and the inhabitants of Shandy Hall - in the actor-puppets, long frozen in their positions on the arbitrariness of the author.
By taking the time to a unique genre - a novel about a novel, Stern reached the enigma of the narrative, which gives rise to varying interpretations of this work. Outlining the events Tristram unable to cope with surging him material: starts talking about one, and jumps to another until many pages later, ends the thought. 'What helplessness! " - Think ironically reader. But only at first, as this uneven, spasmodic Tristram's story - the greatest discovery Stern: it is exactly what the human mind works. Reproduction associativity of human thought, the first undertaken in the literature Stern, was a huge step forward in the development of the psychological novel.
. Tristram says that does not manage his pen that writes without a plan, although in fact a novel, Stern-designed and challenging track
. Tristram was unable to complete his narrative: in the statements of the narrator, it was supposed to cover a much larger circle of events. But the Stern accomplished what conceived. For the essence of this work is not in the narrative, which leads Tristram, but in the very Tristram, who leads the narrative. Novel Tristram only exaggerated the existing canon to it, bringing it to an absurdity, to parody. Roman Stern for a long time ahead of his time and opened new possibilities of the genre.
Not out of the last nine that while Stern has fully absorbed the idea of creating another work which is destined to give the name of a variety of literary movements, - 'Sentimental Journey through France and Italy'.
'Sentimental Journey' marks a new stage in the English literature of the late Enlightenment. If the first novel in an educational spiritual world of man considered in light of one of the central conflict (the debt - the passion, altruism - self-interest, reasonable - unreasonable), then for Stern, it is valuable in itself. '... Travel and my observations will be of a different kind than all my predecessors' - we read in a book. Indeed, the author and the hero deliberately indifferent to the historical and cultural sights of France. Yorick 'did not see the Palais Royal - neither of Luxembourg - neither the facade of the Louvre - and not try to lengthen the lists of paintings, statues and churches that we have'. Could not we find in this book and thought type fildingovskih - politics, economics, commerce ... All Yoriko's story about his travel experiences, it is important only that reveals the psychology of the narrator. The reader is not an objective picture of the world, and life, which I saw the eyes of this particular traveler.
Creativity Stern, like any truly great artist does not fit into the rigid framework of a particular literary movement. For him, the largest representative of the British sentimentalism, peace and 'human nature' is much more complex than for his literary associates. Stern shows the inconsistency of behavior Yorick - a typical 'sensitive hero', the limits of his ethical position. Rejecting the one-sided approach to the man, seeing it in the contradictory unity of good and bad qualities, 'delusions of heart and mind' and moral 'victory' over them, Stern makes a substantial contribution to the development of European psychological novel.
In the 'Sentimental Journey' Stern moves from the old dry informative and objectivity of this genre to strengthen it subjective, lyrical beginning. This new type of travel is widespread in the literature of sentimentalism and romanticism.
Thus, in the genre of the novel, in the genre of travel writer, searching for ways and means to display those layers of the inner life of man, which until then had been inaccessible literature.
Laurence Sterne's literary fate was equally unusual, as created by him: he was far ahead of his time, his discoveries were not immediately and not fully recognized by his contemporaries. A posthumous fame of the writer indicates that his work is taken gradually, and then some, then his other hand - in accordance with the tastes and fashions of time.
Creativity Stern left its mark not only in the literature of Western Europe. He quickly became popular in Russia, where at the end of XVIII century, and read it in the original, and often, in the French and German translations. In 1783, there is the already mentioned 'Sternovo journey through France and Italy under the name of Yorick'. Is followed by other editions in Russian, as well as journal publications. Especially promotes Stern 'Moscow Journal' NM. Karamzin. One of the first Russian writers, for whom creativity Stern - and especially the 'Sentimental Journey' - influenced, was AN. Radishchev, as he himself says in a letter to SI Sheshkovu: 'And as I happened to read the German translation Yorikova travel, then my idea came to him to follow'. 'Sensitive, gentle, kind and attractive to our Stern' contemporaries called Karamzin. And no doubt - the author of 'Letters of a Russian Traveler "owes much to his British colleague in Peru.
In the second half of the XIX century turned to Stern and Leo Tolstoy. It is noteworthy that work on earlier editions 'Childhood' immediately preceded undertaken by Tolstoy, though not completed, the translation of 'Sentimental Journey'.
Experience Stern so well blended into our current understanding of the novel and the journey that is perceived as a feature inherent in these genres. Therefore I would like to end with the words of Goethe Sterne: 'Usually, with the rapid progress of literary and social development, we forget to whom we owe the first impressions, who first influenced us. Everything that is happening, derived in the present, it seems quite natural and inevitable, but we find ourselves at a crossroads and it is because we are losing sight of those who sent us the right path. that's why I want to draw your attention to the man who ... initiated and facilitated the further development of the great era of cleaner understanding of the human soul, the noble era of tolerance and tender love. "
. 'XVIII century has created a novel in which he expressed himself in particular, only one of his characteristic way: Voltaire's philosophical tale and humorous stories of Swift and Sterne - that is the true romance of XVIII century'
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'This preference for self-consciousness meanderings guide its izezzhennymi big roads Stern surprisingly close to our age. This attention to the silence, not speech, Stern - the predecessor of modern writers. That is why he is much closer to us today than his great contemporaries Richardson and Fielding '.
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'I could not write this story in the traditional manner ... But I want to tell the story of this strange family in a new way.. The elements I have exactly the same as any other novelist: a man and woman, birth, childhood, night, sleep, marriage, prayer, death. In all this there is nothing paradoksannogo. I'm just trying to build a lot of plans narratives united by the same aesthetic objective. You ever read Laurence Sterne? "