SUVOROV Alexander( The great commander)
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Biography SUVOROV Alexander
Son of Peter the Great's batman belonged to a generation that part of life in the wake of the Petrine reforms. Since childhood, he mastered German and French, adults learned Polish, Italian, Turkish. His father, Vasily Ivanovich also knew several languages, and yet Suvorov middling gentry family. Unto the passion sometimes leads to the neglect of national customs, but at all costs the Petrine reforms, Russian man lost his 'I'.
Remember it Suvorov at the council in Muttenskoy valley in Switzerland. 1799 ... Surrounded by the enemy, small Suvorov's army was on the verge of death. Old Marshal, for the first time a hike wearing all his medals, told colleagues the truth about their situation and ended with the words: 'There remains only one hope in God, but on the courage and selflessness of my troops. Save the honor of Russia and its Emperor! " It made a strong impression, . and, . when the oldest of the generals on behalf of all assured Suvorov boundless confidence ( 'We are your, . father, . we are Russian! "), . Tears glistened in the eyes of the commander: 'Thank you! We, . Russian, . all upper hand! " And the army is doing a miracle,
. Confident in the near-defeat the enemy is defeated, and Suvorov is coming out of the bag hard, but still leads to a thousand prisoners taken in the recent battles.
Style speech Suvorov, generally self-mobytnost his behavior can not be understood outside the ancient folk traditions, recorded in the legends of the blessed, holy fools, wandered. Russian fools, denouncing injustice, lived in the hope that thereby serve God and people. So it's great Suvorov, according to the Decembrist N. Muravyova, their eccentricities 'often had to feel harsh truth that the greatness of the throne leads usually stored in a timid and respectful silence'.
'Do you want me to know? - Asked Suvorov, already scenting the approach of death. - I reveal myself: I praise the kings, warriors of love, my friends surprised me, hated me, reviled, in the court laughed at me. I have been at court, but not the court, and Aesop, La Fontaine: jokes and animal language was telling the truth. Like the jester Balakirev, who was in Peter the Great and benefactor of Russia, grimacing and writhing. I sang a rooster waking up the sleepy ugomonyal violent enemies of the fatherland. If I was Caesar, he tried to have all the noble pride of his soul, but always kept aloof to his vices'.
Suvorov was born in Moscow and up to nine years he lived in the house of his mother, nee Manukovoy. Maybe from her, and little Alexander inherited the love of Russian song and dance, to folk proverbs and sayings. 12 years it was recorded in leybgvardii Semenov regiment. For the customs of the time young Suvorov was granted leave to adulthood with the obligation to study at home sciences - arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, basic fortifications, artillery, foreign languages, 'military exercises'. January 1, 1748 in order for the regiment were the words: 'who came from leave 8-th company to be at a corporal Suvorov 3rd company'. From that day and went to his active service.
The first baptism of fire he received in the Seven Years War, which began in the commissariat and staff positions, and finished dashing cavalry colonel. He slowly moved in rank: in 32 years - Colonel, 40 th year - major-general, full general - in 56 years. He bypassed many of those who started to serve after. Spared no merit, awards, ranks, obtained thanks to the high patronage and family ties. Suvorov despised upstarts and seriously worried that he had not been valued. However, the true Stoic philosopher, he never lost heart, and remained an example for his subordinates, even in the most tragic moments.
As commander Suvorov first manifested itself at war with the Polish Confederates. They are mobile, flying groups, who fought against King Stanislaw August Poniatowski, who was supported by Russia, met in the person of Suvorov worthy opponent. He was able to counter them with even greater rapidity, agility, surprise, and made strong progress
. By this time, have formed opinions of Suvorov in methods of warfare, training and education of soldiers, a means to achieve victory in one battle and throughout the campaign - that his legacy, which even now are exploring the professional military
. Suvorov was not a theoretician, whose plans are born in the quiet of his study. He was a practitioner and all of his 'regimental institutions' and 'Science of Victory' were tested on the battlefield. So, he knew that each campaign, each battle is different, depending on climate, topography of the terrain, season and other conditions, and therefore can not be performed on one pattern. But always be possible to advance rapidly, carefully calculating the velocity of the troops and trying to reduce losses. Detailed action plan fight-Closed operations should be brought to each of their party, but then provided the officers, commanders of individual parts of an opportunity to show initiative received depending on the changing situation. Much attention is paid Suvorov provide all the necessary forces, moral and physical condition of soldiers. Commander taught them to act on any terrain, trained in them a spirit of mutual assistance. Suvorov's famous phrase 'easy to drill - hard to campaign heavily in the teaching - easy on the march' became a byword.
At the end of Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774 years Suvorov transferred to the Danube in the army of Field Marshal P.A. Rumyantsev, where he will soon put forward in the first series, confirming its reputation as commander of a belligerent is not a number, and the ability. It Suvorov struck a decisive blow to the Turks in Kozludzhe and effectively put an end to war.
Soon, at the request of the Empress it are sent to the Volga region in the fight against Pugachev. Lieutenant-General galloped to Tsaritsyn already after the insurgents suffered a final defeat. Harassment rebels Suvorov hastened the denouement. Commander, only had a chance to escort 'nabeglogo king' of Yaitsky town in Simbirsk. Pictures of People's ills, caused by heavy shock to the country, forever etched in the memory of Suvorov. When Paul I started to destroy what was created under Catherine II, Suvorov was one of the first to appreciate the danger of such 'restructuring', but refused to raise the Al-Miyu against the king and his entourage. He went into a humiliating resignation and exile, but we would plunge Russia into a new civil war.
However, these events still to come, and yet, in the years 1776-1783, Suvorov was located in southern Russia, which went on accession to the Empire Crimean Khanate. And in the Kuban and the Crimea Suvorov has shown himself not only a brilliant military leader, but also a talented diplomat, who succeeded in finding a common language with local people. Suvorov also laid the first building the future of Sevastopol.
Brief peaceful respite in the years 1784-1786 allowed to do Suvorov economy in their own estates. He translates from barshchina peasants on the rent, introduces a system of cultural farming. Home theater, orchestra and choir - these amusements he tries to drown the emotional pain that caused the rupture with his wife. The couple parted, and her daughter Natasha, Suvorov placed in the Smolny Institute, and personally cared about her upbringing and education, prohibiting communication with mother.
Soon a new war with Turkey (1787-1791), who became for Suvorov 'finest hour', demanded that the general tension of all the physical and spiritual strength. And who led the Russian army GA. Potemkin entrusted to him the most important tasks. Suvorov always found exactly where the decisive battle of the war played out: Kinburn, Ochakov, Focsani, Rymnik, Ishmael. Showered with awards, was erected in the Count's dignity Russia and the Holy Roman Empire, Suvorov honored one of the best generals of his time. And yet he was already 60 - the age at the time a very solid.
After the death of Potemkin Alexander Vasilyevich sent to reinforce the border, first on the approaches to St. Petersburg, and then - again in the south. He confirmed his talent fortifier. In the midst of these works rebellion broke out in Poland under the leadership of Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Suvorov charge to cover the border from Brest. With a small detachment, he brilliantly performs the task, . then, . when one of the corps dealt a crushing defeat of the Polish army and captured the Kosciuszko captured, . decisive roll in the capital of Poland and stormed a suburb of Warsaw - Prague Suvorov ended the war,
. At the ceremonial dinner in honor of delivering the keys of Warsaw Empress raises a toast to the health of 'Field Marshal Suvorov'.
The sudden change in the fate of Suvorov begins with the accession of Paul I. Within a month after ascending the throne a new emperor demands from the commander: 'brought his to my order'. This means put in the troops under the command of Suvorov so loved Paul Prussian orders. But the old field marshal does not agree: two months later he resigns. It starts with a two-year reference Suvorov in the village Konchanskoye. The most famous of Russian military commanders, he lived virtually under the supervision of the king's spies. Army complains, it is brewing a conspiracy, and Suvorov offer to head it. But, as already mentioned, he refused, for fear of shedding the blood of fellow citizens.
Konchanskoye not in a long list of Suvorov won battles, but here he won one of the most prominent of his victories - a moral victory over the forces of destruction. Not Suvorov, . and Paul was forced to retreat: in 1799 he was appointed Field Marshal Commander of the Russian army in Northern Italy, . where, in alliance with Britain and Austria joined Russia in the fight against Thermidor France: Italian and Swiss began hiking Suvorov, . again fame to Russian arms,
. The name of the liberator of Italy from the French rumbling in Europe. In commemoration of outstanding merits of Suvorov Paul I brought him to princely rank (Prince of Italy), and granted the rank above which there is no - Generalissimo of Russian troops. But when a very sick commander returned to St. Petersburg, the Emperor received him coldly. New opal? This strike Suvorov could not resist: May 6, 1800, he was gone.
. What do you get into a song of military
. Flute like, dear Snigir?
. Who do we go to war against hyena?
. Who is our leader now? Who is hero?
. Where strong, brave, quick
. Northern thunders in the coffin lay
It responded to the death of Suvorov G.R. Derzhavin, and the grave of the commander of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery in St. Petersburg were written in short, but expensive each rossiyaninu words: 'Here lies Suvorov.
'He's always one language: Friendship is friendship, and service service! Not only his comrades, but we, the officers, honored him 'eccentric'. When I once asked him why he does not live with any of his comrades, but even avoiding their society, he replied: 'I have a lot of old friends: Caesar, Hannibal, Vauban, Kegorn, Folard, Turenne, Montekukuli, Rollin. .. and all I do not remember. Old friends sinful change in the new ... '
From a letter to his father AVSuvorov his company commander
Guards Semenov regiment