Sumaroka Aleksandr Petrovich( Famous Russian poet and playwright)
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Biography Sumaroka Aleksandr Petrovich
. When a rainy October afternoon in 1777 a few actors bore the modest tomb in the cemetery of the Don monastery, . few of the passers-by knew, . that buried the famous Russian poet and playwright, . former director of Russia's first national public theater, . recent legislator literary opinion on 'Russia's Parnassus' - Alexander Petrovich Sumarokova,
. He belonged to that generation of Russian writers who are updating the national culture on secular principles, focused on the European experience. None other than Sumarokov laid the foundations of the XVIII century Russian drama. However, he was a talented poet, a sharp critic, caustic and sarcastic writer.
Sumarokov came from a distinguished noble family. He was born on the earth's Le Finland, not far from Vilmanstrand (the current name of the town - Lappeenranta), where his father commanded a brigade during the Northern howl-HN. First, the formation of a boy engaged in home tutors. When in 1732 in St. Petersburg was opened Overland Gentry Cadet Corps - a privileged school for children of higher nobility, Sumarokov became one of his first pupils. In the case where the train future public officials, focused on the humanities, the finer points of social etiquette, foreign languages. Encouraged, as classes in literature, by the Cadets was established amateur theater. In addition, they were free to attend performances of foreign troupes touring. In such an environment shaped literary tastes Sumarokova and particularly interest in theater, a fanatical devotion which will accompany him throughout life.
The first poetic experiments Sumarokova were largely imitative love songs and odes in honor of greeting the Empress Anna Ioannovna. After the corps in 1740, serves as adjutant Sumarokov Vice-Chancellor Count G. Golovkin M., and since the end of 1741, after accession to the throne of Elizabeth, became adjutant favorite of the Empress A.G. Razumovsky. In 1743, he already has the rank of the Adjutant General. But the career does not prevent Sumarokov all the free time to devote literature. He is involved in theoretical debates, with interest read the famous playwrights of France XVII century, and attend all performances of troupes, acting in St. Petersburg. Write to Russia that the literature, which could reach the level of literature the most cultured of European countries - now the goal of life Sumarokova.
Wide fame comes to Sumarokov in 1748, when he released a theoretical treatise of the two epistles in verse. At first he talked about the creation of the Russian literary language, and the second - on what should be dealt with a young Russian poets, wishing to devote himself to literature. The second epistle - 'on Prosody' was written in imitation of the famous treatise theoretician of French classicism N. Boileau 'poetic art' and has become a kind of manifesto of the Russian literary classicism, . where Sumarokov detailing its main genres and pointed samples, . which should focus poets.,
. An engraving depicting the heroes of the tragedy AP Sumarokova 'Horev'
. First edition. 1747
At the same time Sumarokov writes his first tragedy 'Horev' - the legendary story of the history of ancient Russia, the consistency in the theatrical rules of French classic tragedy. The play, acted on the stage of amateur theater Gentry Corps in December 1747, a la enthusiastically accepted by the audience. In January 1750 at the request of the Empress Elizabeth's performance came on the scene of the court theater. Encouraged by the success, . Sumarokov wrote several tragedies: 'Hamlet' (1748) - in imitation of the famous play by William Shakespeare, . 'Sinai and Truvor' - on the mythological story of the history of Novgorod, . 'Artistona! " (both - 1750) - explanation of ancient Persian history and 'Shemer' (1751) - once again turned to the events of the times of Kievan Rus',
. At the same time Sumarokov creates a series of one-act comedies: 'Tresotinius', 'The arbitral tribunal' (she later became known as 'the Beast'), 'The quarrel between husband and wife' (in the second edition of 'empty row') and 'Narcissus'.
Sumarokovskie tragedy served as a breeding ground for the virtues of monarchs and the estate of honor for the subjects. The author suggested to the audience the idea of pernicious - and for the individual and for the state - self-will, and also showed his contemporaries, how it should discharge its public duty. In comedies Sumarokov ridiculed ignorant nobles, blind imitators of French fashion, greedy clerks, dull pedants, often puts a caricatured his literary opponents.
In August 1756 Sumarokov appointed director of the establishment of the nominal order of Elizabeth's first professional theater Rossiyskogo. He held this position in incredibly difficult circumstances - was in fact the artistic director, . stage designer, . educator of the troupe and it does not cease to write the play: in the late 1750's created a tragedy 'Dimiza', . comedy 'Dowry deception', . drama 'Hermit', . opera and ballet libretto,
. Funds for the theater was never enough, and Sumarokov often spent on the needs of its own money. But the possibilities are not unlimited. Sharp disagreements with his superiors forced Sumarokova in 1761 to resign as director of the theater. He even gave his vow not to write anything more for the theater, but, of course, very soon it violated.
Since 1759 Sumarokov publishes 'Hard-working bee', becoming a major contributor to. It was Russia's first purely literary magazine, the pages of which were published, in particular, translations of works of Voltaire, Swift, Horace, Lucian. In mid 1760-ies Sumarokov reiterates its call to comedy and creates a cycle of sharply satirical comedy: 'The Guardian', 'oppressor', 'Poison'. Bilious satire Sumarokova often led to quarrels with his contemporaries. He did not get on, for example, Lomonosov, Trediakovskij, writers Emin, Chulkov, and many others. Nevertheless Sumarokov remained the acknowledged leader of the literary youth, and he believed belonged to the attention of almost all who sought to find their way into the literature of those years. The emergence of poetry groups often led to sharp polemical battles between the authors, which Sumarokov often performed pioneer. His caustic parody of the Lomonosov ode, and especially in poetry fashionable in the late 1760-ies the poet V. Petrov, enjoyed the patronage of Catherine II, - a noticeable landmark in the literary struggle of those years.
In 1769 Sumarokov moved permanently to Moscow. He creates his famous 'Dimitri the Pretender' (1770) - the first and only of its tragedy, based on real events of national history. Scene Selection - taking the Russian throne Falsdmitry with Polish troops in 1605 - made it possible to put in a work of serious contemporary problems: the usurpation of power, . Depending on the fate of the monarchy from the will of the people, . and remains - the duty and responsibility of rulers to subjects,
. In the same years Sumarokov wrote tragedy 'Vysheslav' and 'Mstislav', as well as several comedies, in which the influence of innovative play DI. Fonvizin 'Foreman'. Exploring the aristocratic mores of society, draws Sumarokov now comically pointed types of landlords - in the comedy 'Cuckold of imagination', 'Vzdorschitsa' and 'Mother - sovmestnitsa daughters' (all - 1772).
. Sumarokov released several collections of poetry works in various genres and the most significant of them - a fable
. Free from the bare sermons, full of laughter, sarcasm, gruff folk humor, they have the breadth of their social generalizations and satirical quip was the finest examples of a fable, a parable in the early stage of development of the genre. Total Sumarokov wrote more than 350 fables (six books).
He composed the songs and the songs - simple and natural to express feelings of love, they were very popular among his contemporaries
. Since moving to Moscow Sumarokov studying historical sources, . on the basis of which creates the works' first and main strelets riot, . former in Moscow in 1682 in the month maie ', . 'An abbreviated story of Stepan Razin', . 'Brief Moscow le topis', . 'Second strelets rebellion' and other,
Even in 1756 Sumarokova at the request of the famous historian academician G.F. Miller was elected an honorary member of the Leipzig Literary Society. Preserved evidence of correspondence dating Sumarokova with Voltaire, to whom he addressed in 1769 about the new trends in drama. In Russia Sumarokova had many disciples and followers who have made a significant contribution to the development of Russian literature of XVIII century, for example, MM KHERASKOV, VI Maikov, AA Rzhevskii, YA.B. Knyazhnin.
In recent years Sumarokov lived in constant need. He died alone in the world, although his authority in literary circles in Russia remained very high. Four years after the death of Sumarokov his ardent admirer Russian educator and publisher NI. Novikov in Moscow issued a ten-'All the works in prose and poetry ... Alexander Petrovich Sumarokova '.
AP Sumarokov of 'black':
'We have addressed all these things so given that are not nobles. Nobleman! Great importance! Reasonable priest and preacher of God's majesty, or briefly theologian estestvoslov, an agronomist, conductor, painter, sculptor, architect and protch. according to this silly situation Chern. About unbearable aristocratic pride, worthy of scorn and outrage! The true essence of the ignorant rabble, even though they had great grades, wealth Krezovo and would imply a kind of Zeus and Juno, which never happened '.