Tipu Sultan( Indian ruler of the principality Mysore)
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Biography Tipu Sultan
. When the end of 1782 the British have learned that, . that their sworn enemy, Haidar Ali, . concerns that the Principality of Mysore was the main obstacle to British rule in In-DII, . died, . they have not experienced relief: the heir to the throne of Mysore was no less dangerous and intransigent opponent,
. In its 32 пЁп+п¦п¦ Tipu Sultan had already managed to win the love of the army, military glory and honor the nickname Lion of Mysore. He took over from his father's diplomatic skills and administrative abilities, was brave, proud irresistibly and soul hated those who stood by India in the peaceful merchants, and now would like to host here. In contrast, Haidar Ali, and failed to achieve the basics of literacy, Tipu Sultan received a good education and continues throughout life to pursue knowledge. Hatred of the colonizers did not interfere with Tipu Sultan interested in scientific, technical and other achievements of Europe. In the huge library of his palace was a lot of European books, including the famous 'Encyclopedia'. Tipu Sultan was generally little resemblance to the then Indian rulers. Energetic and active, he despised them for their laziness, never went to the palanquin, preferring adorned litter hot Arabian horse, or on festive occasions, fighting an elephant.
. Becoming the ruler of Mysore, Tipu Sultan, continued to personally lead the military operations, and during the short peace rests heavily involved in public affairs
. Maysurtsy often saw him was on the fortifications of the capital, then at state factories, where the European masters trained local workers producing new weapons, hours and other arrangements. Offended yet know Haidar Ali attributes this to low, plebeian nature son of a noncommissioned officer.
Tipu Sultan ascended the throne of Mysore in the midst of the Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784). Suppressing the conspiracy of feudal lords who tried to overthrow the legitimate heir to the throne, and to bring his idiot brother, Tipu surrounded the fortress Bednur British army, which soon led the negotiations for the surrender of. Tipu Sultan agreed to accept an honorable surrender and honorably released from the besieged Bednura, but those believing that the natives have nothing to stand on ceremony, looted and burned the town's coffers. Tipu then ordered to undress all the officers and soldiers searched them (it turned out that noble British hid precious stones and gold in the most unbelievable parts of the body), and then chained to send in Mysore. British newspapers for a long time crying about the barbarity 'Mysore despot', and the war became even more fierce. Tipu developed a success, but it prevented the failure of the French allies. And in 1783 they did treacherously signed with Britain the world. Tipu had no choice but to conclude a peace treaty with the British, but understand that the enmity continues ...
. In 1786-1787 years Tipu inflicted a crushing defeat on the combined forces of Indian states: Maratha and Hyderabad, but the first returned some previously captured their lands
. By this gesture he tried to persuade rivals to act together against the British. Tipu was fully aware that to resist the British colonialists can only unity of Indian states. He has repeatedly called for that purpose to their rulers, frantically searching for allies in Nepal, Afghanistan, Turkey, and even at the end of life sent a mission to Russia. But the Indian princes were afraid of strong Mysore and felt it beneath my dignity to enter into an alliance with the plebeians. All secret letters Tipu Marathi and ruler of Hyderabad has kindly forwarded to the British.
In the Mysore Tipu Sultan continued and significantly deepened the reform of his father. Niveus army was organized and trained in European, dressed in a form, had a field manual. A rich treasury to pay handsomely salaried officers and soldiers, pensions - the wounded, the bereaved families and veterans, included development of medical service and even a school for soldiers. The transformations have affected not only the army: the first time in Mysore in India was divided administration on the military, . civil and judicial authorities by Tipu Sultan (financial, . military, . Shipping, . Commercial, . Construction, . mail) to remind the functions and structure of the board of Russia's time of Peter I,
. Generally in the reforms of Tipu Sultan was a lot of similarities with Peter's innovations: the establishment of the regular army, . use of European experience in military affairs and technology, . active patronage of Trade and Industry (State Manufactory, . protection merchants, . benefits rich artisans-entrepreneurs),
. Started build navy Mysore, European officers to train local sailors.
. Aware that the 'Tipu hostility to the British name, and the interests they openly acknowledged and inevitable', Governor-General of the British East India Company Cornwallis concluded in July 1790 an alliance with the Marathas and Mysore Hyderabad against
. Its capital Shrirangapattinam (sometimes found wrong, . the English style name - Seringapatam) was besieged, . and, . despite the heroic resistance, . Tipu was forced to sign a humiliating treaty, . which he lost half of the land, . paid an enormous indemnity and gave hostages to their young sons,
. But the Lion of Mysore was not broken. A talented administrator, he quickly consolidated the weakened economy, war, strengthened the army, thousands of peasants and artisans from neighboring states moved to Mysore, where they willingly gave land and work. Even the British recognized that a few years after the heavy defeat Mysore once again flourished.
. Again and again appealed Tipu Sultan all the Emperors of India with a proposal to unite against the colonialists, but his calls remained a voice crying in the wilderness
. Hope for outside help resurrected by Tipu victory of the revolution in France. Many natives of this country, left to serve in the army and the factories Tipu, even engaged in Shrirangapattiname Jacobin Club under the patronage of the 'citizen of the Sultan', which was obviously prefer the new France. When in 1799, Tipu Sultan directly appealed to Napoleon, and sent an embassy to the French island of Mauritius, in London raised the alarm. Moreover, . that in British newspapers and numerous books Mysore ruler represented cruel and bloody tyrant, . enemy of progress, . Muslim fanatic, . he also 'discovered in his Jacobin Club, . entered into an agreement with France to our destruction! " And although the French fleet was defeated by Nelson of the Nile during the Egyptian campaign of Napoleon, . and from Mauritius Tipu received only good wishes, . pretext for war with Mysore was found,
. New Governor-General Wellesley now not only had three powerful armies - his own, . Maratha and Hyderabad, . - But bribed several major Mysore commanders, . promising to return them snatched Tipu Sultan fiefs and privileges,
. Supporter of the British was even the first minister of Mysore Mir Sadiq, which Tipu was once arrested for taking bribes, but later pardoned.
. How to recognize himself Wellesley, ordinary soldiers and junior commanders Mysore army fought with incredible courage, but the forces were too heavy, besides Mir Sadiq disorganized defense of the capital
. On the demand to surrender and hand over all the French Tipu replied with a categorical refusal. After a long siege of the capital of Mysore was taken by storm with the help of traitors, supplied the British scheme of fortifications and opened the gates at the right time. At the head of a small detachment of personal protection Tipu Sultan fought to the last and was seriously wounded. The surviving guardsmen put his sovereign to the palanquin and trying to save his life, were ready to surrender to the British. They pleaded Tipu Sultan to surrender to the winners, . already in full masters of the fortress, . but he replied: 'Better to die a lion, . than live a hundred years jackal! " Bleeding Lion Mysore still managed to strike the final blow saber British marauders, . longed to seize the precious belt and arms wounded, . and was immediately finished off,
. Wellesley for a long time searching for the body of the ruler of Mysore, and only seriously wounded valet type, the only one you-live of his companions, entered the British, where to look defeated ge-swarm. Referring to his body his sword, said Wellesley retinue: 'India is now ours, gentlemen. "
Rich and beautiful capital city of Mysore has been turned into ruins and is ruined, the city could not then recover. The British and their allies devastated palace, spared neither unique library, or even women's quarters. However, they did not dare offend the ashes of the Lion of Mysore and decided to arrange his sworn enemy, the king's funeral. As witnesses recalled, . the moment, . when his body was buried and the surviving townspeople knelt, . in order to raise the funeral prayer, . broke terrible, . unprecedented storm, . because of which blazed untouched battle palaces and houses, . gunpowder store exploded British Army ..,
. Few days the British robbed and killed, they copied their inherited wealth, bestowed traitors, but not all. Chief traitor Mir Sadiq, they were unable to bestow: he caught dagger someone of the last defenders of the fortress.
Indians revered the memory of the Lion of Mysore. In Shrirangapattiname, . the ruins of which still bear traces of the British nuclear, . obelisk marked the death of Tipu Sultan's place, and thousands of pilgrims visit the mausoleum Gumbaz, . where he is buried, Haidar Ali and his son, . and every year on the day of the death of Tipu over his grave reads naubat - big thunder of drums, . which in Tipu Sultan's army celebrated the victory.,
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