Tiradentes Joaquim Jose de Silva Xavier( The head of the independence movement in Brazil in the 80's. 18.)
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Biography Tiradentes Joaquim Jose de Silva Xavier
History of Brazil is not like the history of other countries in Latin America, where the merged European (Spanish) and Indian culture. In Brazil, the beginning of the XVI century, that is, in the first decades of Portuguese colonization, the Indians were either exterminated or banished to remote tropics. And then to work on plantations and mines began to import slaves from Africa. In the XVII century the contradictions between white masters and black slaves, and moreover, between the Portuguese colonial authorities and the local Creole hour then settled unrest and revolts. Thus, in 1684 in Maranyane, a rebellion broke out Creoles perturbed established in the province of the trade monopoly of one company from Lisbon. The revolt was crushed, its leaders executed, but the monopoly abolished, that convinced many Brazilians of the need to resist the tyranny of the colonialists. However, the rhythm of economic and civic life of Brazil, and after such statements remain still monotonous.
. The eighteenth century brought a change in the existence of Brazilians - at the end of the previous century in the interior of the country have found gold, but at the end of 1720 came across on diamonds
. Effusion poured in Minas (as it became known as the captaincy - the administrative and territorial unit of Brazil, now the state of Minas Gerais), a crowd of many thousands of seekers of wealth. There are new towns and cities. One of them, founded in 1729 Vila Rica (Rich Town), became the center of captaincy. It was destined to play the events that left a deep imprint on the entire Brazilian history and immortalized the name of the protagonist of this national tragedy - Tiradentes.
. Tiradentes - is actually not a name but a nickname - 'zuboder'
. In fact, his name was JosöL Joaquim da Silva Xavier. He was born in the Creole family of modest means, sooner lost his father and had himself earning a living. Wed di different professions, which he studied, and had dental work. The young man tried to become a priest, engaged in itinerant trade, suffered the fate of the goldfields. Finally, at age 21, Jose Joaquin entered the army, where his strength, agility, endurance and tenacious mind helping cope with the hardships of a soldier's life and honor out of battles with the smugglers who flooded Minas.
. Despite the excellent performance of the duties and sociable character, Tiradentes was moving slowly in the service - he did not have senior family members and patrons
. Nevertheless, he did not feel like losers. For him, married the beautiful Creole, which gave a loving wife of two boys and a girl. Dragunsky lieutenant willingly complicit in the best houses in Villa Rica, no less luxurious than the mansions of the aristocrats of the Rio de Janeiro, and even Lisbon.
. Yet many residents of Villa Rica, . including Tiradentes, . tormented by questions: why the local natives, . Brazilians, . must endure the humiliation and dependence on the arrogant dandies from Portugal, . which previously set aside the warmest place in the colonial administration, why the merchants of Lisbon and Porto has advantages in trade with other countries, . Yes, and within Brazil itself, why taxes are so great, . and local entrepreneurs have no freedom of action? True, . the first court minister Marquis de Pombal (1750-1777) in Brazil, appeared the first factory, . formed new trading company, . built schools,
. However, with the removal of Pombal colonial oppression, not only recovered, but also increased. In a difficult situation got very rich while captaincy of Minas. Since the middle of XVIII century was the fall production of gold and diamonds, but the court did not want to know. The amount of taxes imposed even in the best of times, not decreased, arrears grow. In 1789, in Vila Rica, arrived new Governor Viscount de Barbacena. He was ordered to collect all the debts with the captain for several years, and the Viceroy of Brazil, his uncle, Luis de Vasconcelos promised him every support in this. The news of the extraordinary tax - derrame - plunged into confusion the whole captaincy. Derrama meant the complete ruin of the region, poverty is not only poor but wealthy people.
However, there were living not just with rumors of impending trouble. For years, intellectuals Vila Rica and other cities in Minas discuss new ideas which came to Brazil from abroad. French Enlightenment, encyclopedic agitated the minds of educated Brazilians. The notion of 'popular sovereignty', 'social contract', 'freedom from tyranny' in various ways, interpreted in the evenings in the living rooms of Brazilian cities. Since there were no universities, affluent parents send their children to complete training in Portugal and France. Those returning home, became an ardent advocates of Enlightenment. New winds are blowing on the continent after the inspiring victory of the colonists in North America. Not accidentally student at the University of Montpellier, Jose Joaquim da Maia met with the American consul in France, Thomas Jefferson: he tried to persuade him to support the Brazilian patriots, . ready, . followed Americans, . rise to the struggle for independence,
. Among friends da Maia, shared his views, and was a native of Minas ö¦lvares Masiel, who studied in Montpellier, mineralogy. Finished university and got the right to call the doctor, Masiel went home. One of the first people he met in Rio de Janeiro, was Tiradentes, who was going to hand Viceroy his invention: a new way to supply the capital with drinking water. They met in 1788 finally decided the fate of the dragoon Vila Rica. Henceforth, he became one of the organizers of the conspiracy against Portuguese rule, . involves in its plans and more new people: military, . priests, . officials, . other representatives of the local elite, . including famous across Brazil poets Tomas Antonio Gonzaga, . Clö¦udio Manuel da Costa, . Inö¦cio JosöL de Alvarenga Peixoto.,
. Tiradentes was the head of the conspiracy - the ethics of a society based on social hierarchy, is not allowed in the heads of even the anti-government organization nerodovitogo, a poor officer
. Also among the supporters were Tiradentes and his superiors in the service. But he was the most inspirational, the most active member of the secret society, in essence, to coordinate all activities inkonfidentov - infidels, as they called the authorities. Part of the conspirators believed necessary to limit the release of the captain, Tiradentes I always dreamed to raise against the Portuguese across Brazil. Inkonfidenty inclined to establish a republican system, supposed to enact laws that encourage the development of manufacture and trade, wanted to open the university and to enable ordinary people to get an education. Children of his time, like the revolutionaries in North America, they did not dare to encroach on the very slavery, the abolition of which would inevitably lead to the ruin of wealthy Brazilians. Tiradentes on that and did not insist, though admitting that slavery is contrary to Christian doctrine (he was a religious man): he was the only servant - a servant to whom the house belonged to a family member. In short, the uprising, which relied on the conspirators, was primarily to save Brazil from the colonial yoke. The flag of the future of the republic inkonfidenty going to inscribe the word 'Libertas, quae sera tamen' - 'Freedom, albeit belated. "
Call like as soon as Barbacena announce derramu. But before the governor had heard rumors about the rebellious mood in Minas. He hesitated. On the one hand, he was afraid of precipitous action by an explosion of discontent of local residents, on the other - it was necessary to comply with the order of the court. But soon on the table, the Vicomte de Barbacena and the Viceroy laid denunciation of traitors and informants. The Governor decided to act. First of all, he reassured the population, deprived of the conspirators than to raise expectations for a population of Minas: the authorities indicated their intention to abstain from derramy. At the same time was ordered to catch criminals. Their arrests made no impression on the inhabitants of Villa Rica: the thought that goes raid on smugglers - usual for the time it. Tiradentes taken in May 1789 in Rio de Janeiro, where he intended to organize support for intervention in Minas. Frantic dragoons still on the road so vigorously canvassing their supporters that the denunciation of him came to the Viceroy before Tiradentes arrived in the capital of the colony.
The investigation lasted three years. Officials from Portugal, drew to the question more than 30 people. The interrogations were conducted with passion. Do not stand Clö¦udio Manuel da Costa. Authorities were informed that he had committed suicide, but many Brazilians were convinced: the poet had exhausted torture. Others quickly broke down, began to speak ill of his comrades, looking for any ways to ease their plight. The most persistent was Tiradentes - he took all the blame. On the morning of April 19, 1792 was finally announced the verdict: the instigators and leaders of the conspiracy were doomed to death, others - to penal servitude and exile. Sobs and groans of the prison walls of the hall announced. The judges then went to another document, delivered from Lisbon. It was an act of replacing the death penalty for all other punishments ... except Tiradentes. He found himself alone - friends, escaped a terrible fate, did not hide their jubilation.
A day in Rio de Janeiro, an area of Campo di Lampedusa erected a tall platform with a gallows. Tiradentes in a white robe was taken from prison to the execution. Everyone was surprised how calm he was emaciated, like icon painting face ... Once the executioner quartered extracted from the loop body, the remains were sent to Minas and hoisted on poles at the four roads to intimidate people. Home Tiradentes sryli, and the place where he stood, covered with salt, so the grass and there was growing. The name of the hero, his children and grandchildren had been cursed and forgotten. Royal Court would obliterate from memory the names of the people and other inkonfidentov. However, mindful of the conspirators, and not only in Minas. Even before Russia had reached a distant rumor about the 'conspiracy of poets'. Disgraced Pushkin translated the poem in 1825, perished in the Mozambican link Tomas Antonio Gonzaga.
. It took years before in 1822 in Brazil was proclaimed freedom for which their heads Tiradentes, more than two centuries, revered by all Brazilians as a forerunner of the independence of their state.