Troepol'skaya Tatiana( The First Russian actress)
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Biography Troepol'skaya Tatiana
In this day passed away and there it now
Beautiful women and Melpomene
Thus replied the first Russian playwright Alexander Petrovich Sumarokov the loss of the first Russian actress Tatyana Mikhailovna Troepol'skaya. Through centuries extant poetic legend, . though she died in his dressing room before the first presentation of the tragedy VI Maikova 'Himalia and Hieronymus', . in which the main role was written specially for her, . 'but the disease, . and then the death of Mrs. Troepol'skaya 'play was' left' and then never again did not play,
And just a month before the May 16, 1774, the premiere of the latest tragedy Sumarokova 'Mstislav', where Olga has played Tatiana, 'captivating the minds of viewers for the last time'. Disconsolate author moaned about the irreparable loss for the theater, turning to almost the permanent partner Troepol'skaya on stage (including the last speech), actor Ivan Afanasievich Dmitrevsky:
. And you, my faithful friend, who played with us
. Mstislav ..
. Vosplach, vosplach about that with me and
. Which role of all the world has ended!
. Grief and playwright, and his comrades on the stage and the audience was so strong that the role of these 'has ended' too early, when Tatyana Mikhailovna turned only 30 years old (her waylaid consumption!)
. And this loss to the Russian theater was very sensitive and therefore more, . that the 'daughters' Melpomene in Russia then one could count on the fingers (especially such gifted) - in fact still there was no drama school and actresses were biased,
. When in 1756, was established 'Russian for submission of tragedies and comedies theater', the decree of Empress Elizabeth ordered him to type in 'decent actresses Num-lo'. Until then, a Russian amateur and semi-professional stage of female roles by men (female characters played by young beardless youth). The newspaper 'Saint-Petersburg Gazette' soon after the founding of the Russian theater in March 1757 placed the ad: 'to the needs of the Russian theater, several komediantok ... and if syschutsya wishing to be in the hold Theater comedienne, those were used in bregadira and Russian theater director Sumarokova '. A week later, there is published one more: 'needs to the Russian theater for komediantok Madame', ie the teacher, blyustitelnitsa their morals.
The first ladies, risked to come to the scene, were Agrafena Mikhaylovna Pushkin and sisters Maria and Olga Stepanovna Anan'in. Pretty soon they were married to the first actors: Agrafena - for Ivan Dmitrevsky, . Maria - for Grigory Volkov, . Olga - for Jacob Shumsky (their morality has now been 'fenced' more firmly vows, . but the position of 'gofmeysteriny' - 'Madame' existed in the Russian troupe still in the beginning of XIX century),
However, the first Russian actress, Koya 'many roles was excellent, and in some inimitable', became Tatiana Troepol'skaya. She took the courtly scene from Moscow. Here in 1757, followed by St. Petersburg tried to start his own theater, but still an amateur - from students at. Broadcast from April 1756 he was the first permanent newspaper In the white stone 'Moscow News' in July 1757 reported:' Women and young girls, . having the ability and desire to provide theatrical acts, . to sing and to teach others, . appear in the Office of Moscow University ',
It may be that it was then and came to the Moscow theater beginning 13-year-old Tatiana. To la if she had at that time the wife of Vasily Alekseevich Troepol'skaya - 20-year-old university student, we still unknown (but in those days, and 12-year-olds are often married off). They could play together in the university amateur theater. It is known only that in January 1762 Basil Troepol'skaya was 'sacked' (ie release) of the University and in March received the rank of a collegiate registrar, together with a post in the Senate printing press in St. Petersburg. It was then, . probably, . his wife and went to St. Petersburg courtly scene, . where her partner visited Fyodor Grigorievich Volkov, . whom she shake the audience in the play 'Shemer' (in the late 1762 - early 1763 in the coronation ceremonies of Catherine II),
. Oskolda role in this tragedy Sumarokova considered one of the best in the repertoire of the great Volkova. Shemer same as all the leading ro-li, Troepol'skaya then played with Ivan Afanasievich Dmitrevsky.
. Very suitable for Tatyana these 'Russian' heroine: 'Do-Tzom beautiful, majestic stature' she united in their game 'generosity with a rare sensitivity' and 'has a pleasant voice, expressive'
. Judging by all the statements given contemporaries, . it really was richly endowed by nature and it is through innate talent has managed to become a great actress, . as any stage of education has not received (to get it was still nowhere),
. She has performed it in comedy - Renyara 'Gemini', . Lukin 'Mot, . love amended ', . 'Rattle' in the middle-class drama - Soren 'Boverley', . but in the memory of connoisseurs of drama Troepol'skaya remained primarily as the first and unmatched Russian tragedienne,
. Ivan Afanasievich Dmitrevsky, . who twice went abroad and met with famous masters of Western European Theater, . Nevertheless named Tatyana Mikhailovna 'is not inferior to the art of the first actresses of the century: Lecouvreur, . Kleron, . Dumesnil ',
One of the best in performance Troepol'skaya considered Ilmen role in the tragedy Sumarokova 'Sinai and Truvor'. Sentimentality by following the submission of dedicated Tatiana Mikhailovna inspired lines:
. Meet Ross Ilmen you played
. Russia at her, tears current Leah gazed
. And mature, as she, suffering, dying.
. And as if on purpose, so that, like other first Russian actor Fyodor Volkov turn on the century legend, the first actress Troepol'skaya 'to a complete loss of the public was soon kidnapped by death'
There remained only the portrait and the inscription beneath it proud.