Tö¦pac Amaru II Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera( The head of Peru's largest Indian uprising against the Spanish colonizers.)
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Biography Tö¦pac Amaru II Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera
In Quechua Indians of the Andean highlands, There is a legend about Inkarri - Inca-king. According to her, the Spaniards executed once the legitimate ruler of the Incas. Severed head are either buried in Cusco, either in Lima. However, after the death of the head and continues to live. She grows a new body. Once Inkarri reborn, he will rise and drive out all foreigners. The ancient kingdom of the Incas rise from the ashes and ruins. On the ground, will peace, justice and prosperity. It is believed that this legend dates back to the XVIII century, when the colonial authorities executed Tupac Amaru II, an Indian chief, shook the basis of the Spanish Empire in South America.
Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera was born in the village of Suriname, located 120 km south of Cuzco in the family of hereditary kurak - leader. On the maternal line, he came directly from Pilkovako Juana, daughter of the last Sapa-Inca Tupac Amaru, the ruler 'Novoinkskogo kingdom' in Vilkabambe, executed by the Spaniards in 1571
. Jose Gabriel bore two names: one generic to the paternal line - Condorcanqui (under the name of the giant bird - condor, . inhabiting the Andes); other, . dynastic, . adopted them later - Tupac Amaru (which translates from the Quechua language means "snake" shines "),
He soon lost his father and mother and brought up by relatives. When the boy was ten years old, he was sent to the institution of the Jesuits for the noble Indians in Cusco. Mentors noted the extraordinary ability and perseverance of a young mestizo. He easily learned to read Latin, knew Spanish, but in his own language he expressed himself very elegant style. At 21, he married Michaela Bastidas Puyukava. This beautiful, bold, mind-Naya and strong, will be faithful girlfriend Tupac Amaru and share his tragic fate.
In 1766, JosöL Gabriel was Kurakov villages Suriname Pampamarka and Tungasuka. He also claimed the title of Marquis of Oropesa, once granted by the Spanish crown descendants of the ruling dynasty of the Incas, but did not receive it.
Condorcanqui childhood heard many family traditions of its kind, the rule prior to this very rich country. Nostalgia for the glorious past and brings reading 'King's comments' Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, where he found an idealized image of the wise and just rulers of Tiahuanaco, who are concerned about the welfare of his subjects. In his native village, he put the popular drama 'Apu-Olyantai', recalled the existence of an independent Indian state. Many see it as a protest against tyranny and oppression.
Contemporaries described Condorcanqui as severe and majestic man, whose face is rarely lit up a smile. It seemed he was constantly immersed in the gloomy thoughts. Tall, lean, JosöL Gabriel was lighter than the Indians, the skin, probably because in his veins a lot of Spanish blood.
. Tupac Amaru is elegantly dressed: jacket and short pants fashionable black velvet, white silk Chul-ki
. On shoes - gold buckle. At the head - a cocked hat, adorned with a feather on the one hand, on the other - a small straw cross. On the shoulders of traditional Indian un-ku - woolen tunic, on which are embroidered with gold emblem of his ancestors. His hair was long, up to his shoulders, that distinguished the noble Indians. Friends and enemies noted his kindness, politeness and deference, although on occasion he could safely stop the bugger. Tupac Amaru enjoyed universal respect.
Having inherited a herd of mules and horses, Condorcanqui became engaged carting, for which the Spaniards contemptuously nicknamed him 'drovers'. He was a wealthy man, but never drank such work. Tupac Amaru comes from his caravan many hundreds of miles of difficult and dangerous mountain trails, carrying sugar and wine, textiles and pottery. Everywhere he saw poverty, injustice, suffering Indians, Spanish colonial tyranny.
In search of justice came to the Tupac Amaru Lima - the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru, but, after listening to him, the authorities ordered Condorcanqui retire to his native village, and there wait for a response. Then Tupac Amaru was about to seek justice in Spain itself, but remembered the sad fate of his uncle Blas Tupac Amaru. He appeared before Charles III, told him about the terrible fate of the Indians of Peru. However, on the way back mysteriously died. It was rumored that he was killed by enemies. The patient, a disillusioned returning Tupac Amaru in Suriname. But wherever he passed, greeted him joyfully and simple, and noble Indians, who saw in him not only his protector, but also the legitimate ruler - a descendant of an ancient dynasty of the Incas. True, some of kurak challenged high descent Tupac Amaru. Perhaps then he and that the decision to take up arms.
The uprising began on Saturday, November 4, 1780. On this day, Tupac Amaru and his supporters were arrested unsuspecting Corregidor (police officer), Antonio de Arriaga, and secretly took him to the house Tungasuku Indian chief. Jose Gabriel acted boldly and quickly. He was forced to sign several decrees Corregidor. One of them, addressed to the treasurer of the city Tinta, demanded an immediate deliver in Tungasuku all available in the presence of the treasury, 75 muskets, as well as mules. Treasurer, knowing nothing about the incident, met all the accuracy. Furthermore Corregidor commanded the inhabitants of neighboring villages to urgently come to Tungasuku. Many were surprised by such a hurry, thinking, however, that we are talking about the attack of pirates who had landed somewhere on the coast.
On the morning of November 10, 1780 at the main square Tungasuki was installed scaffold, around which the two rows of people lined up, armed with slings, clubs and muskets. Released herald and read in Spanish and Quechua royal decree, . according to which Arriaga for his numerous crimes, . abuse and violence against the Indians was declared an enemy of the kingdom and sentenced to death by hanging,
. The following decree, signed also, allegedly, the Spanish monarch, declared the abolition Myths - one of the hard duties Indians. Che-cut a few minutes Negro, a former slave Arriaga, led the sentence.
The next day, troops of Indians and mestizos Kikihanu captured the city, took the royal treasury and warehouses. Then Tupac Amaru demolished to the ground hated obrahes - weaving workshops, where the Indians were subjected to ruthless exploitation. In areas covered by the uprising, on behalf of the king lifted the most stringent orders and exorbitant taxes. Indians executed royal officials.
Among the authorities of Cuzco, once received the first information about the events in Tungasuke, panic. Fearing the Indians, and knowing that, among other segments of the population there are many supporters of Tupac Amaru, the Spaniards quickly hid all the weapons in the church. Feverishly formed militia. On the morning of November 17 were made by Spaniards to the south toward the town of Tinto. However, in the evening in a small town Sangarara rebels inflicted a crushing defeat on the Spaniards and a lightning strike captured the town. From prisons have been released prisoners, captured by the rich booty. This victory inspired rebels. Soon eight provinces joined forces with the Tupac Amaru. It seemed that the fate of Cuzco, the ancient capital of the Incas, was sealed. Tupac Amaru has made great efforts to attract and Creoles - white, born, in Spanish America. In his proclamations he spoke of 'love for all without distinction as to people born in the land of America'. However, blind hatred for the oppressors, kopivshayasya centuries, broke out. The Indians, not knowing mercy, thrown from a rock (an ancient punishment of criminals) of any 'outsider', whether white, black or mestizo. Learning of this, Creoles, supporters of Tupac Amaru in Cuzco, were frightened and began to prepare the city for defense.
First Tupac Amaru was acting on behalf of Charles III. He declared, though Spanish monarch granted him a special law to punish 'bad' officials who were not performing the royal decrees and abuse of power, to abolish the hated colonial regime. He emphasized his loyalty to the Spanish crown. But the uprising shirilos, cover new territory. Indian rebels acting on behalf of 'The Incas, the king and the lady of Peru', opened the prison, killed the Spaniards destroyed the attributes and symbols of the Spanish authorities. Given such sentiments, . Tupac Amaru proclaimed himself the legitimate heir to the Inca throne and received the splendid title 'Don JosöL I, . grace of God, Inka, . King of Peru, . SantaföL, . Quito, . Chile, . Buenos Aires and the continent, . South Seas ... ' Thus he demonstrated his intention to secede from Spain,
Now Tupac Amaru went on a white horse, adorned with rich harness. The saddle were strapped two muskets, a pistol and sword. He wore a coat of blue velvet, gold-laced. He, like the Supreme Inca, forehead embraced gilt band and on his chest glowed golden disk of the sun.
At this time in Lima, on the orders of the viceroy Huaregi, thoroughly and quickly prepared for war with the Tupac Amaru. Bishop Moscoso called on all clergy to collect arms and money for the war with rebels. He anathematized and excommunicated all who supported the rebel. Unfortunately, against the Tupac Amaru actively made a noble Indian Mateo Pumakava, as well as influential compatriots. They helped the Spanish people and resources.
Meanwhile Viceroy Huaregi issued a decree whereby the Tupac Amaru disentitle kurak. He was declared a 'rebel, who fraudulently won over to his side of people'. Viceroy had promised to pardon all those who immediately left the camp of the rebels. He also abolished most hated Indian service, in particular reparto - forced distribution of unwanted goods.
In late December, besieged Tupac Amaru Cusco. He appealed to authorities to surrender the city without a fight, perhaps, unwilling to destroy the ancient capital of the Incas. However, the Spaniards were able to organize the defense and the assault failed. Suddenly, Tupac Amaru lift the siege and returned to the Tinto, where it was safe.
Soon arrived in Cuzco, the long-awaited reinforcements, and Spanish troops launched an offensive. Tupac Amaru has lost the initiative, and the rebels suffered a series of crushing defeats. The massacre of the Indians was severe: 67 supporters of the Tupac Amaru were hanged, and their severed heads displayed along the roads leading into Tinto. Tupac Amaru, his relatives and close associates were victims of betrayal. They gave those who had hoped to be forgiven for taking part in the uprising.
Tupac Amaru was subjected to horrific torture. He managed to pass on the will of the note, written in blood. The Spanish authorities, fearing that he would die before sentencing, stop questioning. Even the jailers Inca struck his composure and fortitude. He resigned and repented. Tupac Amaru fought to the end.
'If the heroic actions taken in the name of the plight of the poor people of the province, the Spaniards and the Indians ... is a crime - I am here to punish me, but leave the life of another '- wrote Tupac Amaru II Areche ..
. And here was heard the verdict, . inhumanly cruel: the offender JosöL Gabriel Tupac Amaru traipse up to the place of execution, . in his presence to enforce the sentence on his wife Mikael, . two sons - and Fernando Hipö¨lito, . -law - Antonio Bastidas, and other 'principal captains and assistants in his evil designs and plans'.,
. On Friday, May 18, 1781 at the main square of Cusco, where two hundred years ago was executed by his father, and the execution took Tupac Amaru
. The convicts were taken here in leather bags. Before his death, she sang Micaela Bastilas YARAV, kechuanskuyu song about love. So she said goodbye to her husband. The executioner tried to cut her tongue. She resisted with such courage that he was able to do it, just strangled her.
Finally the turn of Tupac Amaru. He was taken to the center of the area and pulled out language. Then hands and feet with ropes tied to the Inca saddles horses, which were driven in opposite directions. One eyewitness wrote that the horses could not tear long rebel, though made of iron. Even Areche, who led the execution, could not resist and ordered to stop suffering Injun, cut off his head. Suddenly rose a strong wind and torrential rain poured down, although to a terrible massacre in the sky was cloudless. It seemed that the forces of nature rebelled against the death of the Inca.
Killed a great fighter for freedom of Indians Tupac Amaru, but kindled the flames of rebellion raging for two more years. That here and there the Spanish troops suffered defeat from the numerous orders, which led the relatives and associates of Tupac Amaru. In Upper Peru (modern Bolivia) Indian aimara Julian Apas (he took the name of Tupac Katari, who united the two IME-no - Tupac Amaru and Thomas Qatar)
109 days besieging La Paz. With incredible difficulty the Spaniards managed to suppress their resistance. In May 1781 in New Granada (now Colombia), villagers Silo, not knowing about the execution of the Incas, pledging allegiance to new king - Tupac Amaru.
And then frightened the Spanish authorities have decided to do away with the Indian tradition. In the first place, was struck by the native aristocracy, destroyed the ancestral Institute kurak with all their privileges. National clothing was banned. Signs of dignity, which were the rulers of the Incas, were removed. They came and destroyed the portraits of ancient kings and even the local musical instruments. Indians were forced to respect Spanish customs and speak only in Spanish. Not allowed to print and distribute the 'King's comments' Gersilaso de la Vega, and put the drama 'Apu-Olyantai'. Nothing was to remind the past.