Watt, James( Scottish engineer and inventor)
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Biography Watt, James
'All my thoughts, - wrote Watt, one of his friends - are aimed at the steam engine: I can not of anything else to think'. Recognition of the great masters of concise, but it certainly defines the main content of his life. Early childhood, according to the recollections aunt, little James could spend hours fascinated to observe the boiling kettle, a pre-cover, water splashes and jets of steam. Thinking about a boy? We will not speculate. Note only the obvious and important.
Throughout his long and eventful life devoted to the study of Watt steam and water, design and development of heat engines. Passion and dedication to 'Wizard of Greenock', as they called Watt's contemporaries, kept to old age. Meet overcome all difficulties, courted glory and fame, surviving relatives and friends of gray-haired old man witnessed the triumphal procession through the cities and countries of their legendary brainchild - the steam engine. 'Watt was the right man at the right place at the right time' - once wrote a famous researcher from Russia his creative IY Confederate. By chance or are natural success and fame of the inventor? What is it - the smile of fortune, . fluke or a manifestation of surprise alloy talent and hard work? Why do many of the designers and inventors of the heat engine, . predecessors and contemporaries of Watt's exactly it went down in history as the creator of the steam engine? To answer must apply to the XVIII century, . turning point of the era, . which went down in history under the title 'industrial revolution',
. Origin and improvement of steam engines due to the energy crisis of the medieval water wheel, which reached a climax at the turn of XVII-XVIII centuries. The worst he said in mining,.
At one time a water wheel has replaced the horse and other animals, which set in motion pumps, hammers and other installation. But with the development of production required more iron. Ore reserves at the ground exhausted, the man has penetrated deep in its bowels. At the same time pumping water from the mines took away more and more energy. We needed a new source of her - age of the water wheel was over.
Early stage of formation of steam engines associated with the names of scientists and inventors, like Worcester, Leibniz, Severi, Papen, Dezagyule, Leupold, Newcomb, sliders, Kyuno, Vastru. This constellation of predecessors and contemporaries, Watt decided many important engineering problems, thus providing a sufficient number of able-bodied steam engines. However, the installation of the first generation did not meet the new requirements of the machine and factory production.
Most clearly manifested the Industrial Revolution in England, in the textile case. Aggravated to the extreme disparity between the growing need in the tissues and the ability to meet its methods of manual labor in the manufacturing industry attracted engineering minds for the development of spinning and weaving machines. In the history of English civilization ever entered the names of Cartwright, Kay, Crompton, Hargreaves. Glorious sons of foggy Albion opened a new chapter in the development of productive forces. But they have created the spinning and weaving machines were in need of a qualitatively new, universal motor, which would be continuously and evenly (it will not be able to provide a water wheel) brought the machines in the unidirectional rotary motion. This is where in all its splendor and multi-talent gogrannosti brought James Watt.
A number of design innovations enabled him to create a universal motor, as well as boost its economy.
For several years he researched and build a steam setting of the English inventor Newcomen, in which the engine was merged with the pump. The steam was fed into the cylinder, expanding and exerting pressure on the piston, forcing him to move, due to which the work was carried. Then water is injected into the cylinder in order to reduce the pressure exhaust steam and turn it into a liquid for reuse. But inevitably cooled, and the walls of the cylinder, which reduced the efficiency of the installation.
Is it possible to avoid the substantial costs a couple? You can, if we separate condenser (heat exchanger) from the cylinder, which was done by Watt. In the improved machine of steam after the cycle was removed through a separate (independent) cooling condenser. And in order to maintain high temperatures inside the engine, he created around the 'steam-jacket'. This increased efficiency of the installation in 2,7 times.
But scientists did not stop. He invented a hinge mechanism - 'Watt's parallelogram' (called so because, . that some parts - leverage - to its member, . forms a parallelogram), . which converts reciprocating piston motion into rotary motion of the main shaft,
. Now looms to operate continuously. Replaced the water wheel has come a new energy source. The joy was immeasurable Manufacturers. 'In London, Manchester, Birmingham, were all crazy about cars with rotary motion' - wrote his partner, Watt, Matthew Bolton entrepreneur. For the development of production-line machinery inventor devised a special formula. Without more mathematical symbols, they were only a verbal description
. Watt was instructions for the care of the machine with a continuous rotary motion, . assembly of engines with a detailed description of the sequence of installation of each part, . developed rules of installation, . maintenance and repair of steam units,
. Relatives and friends often watched with a kind smile, not quite knowing what it was like for hours a day on the meadow Watt drove horses, or harnessed to the wagon with a variety of goods, or pulling directly on the harness specially selected gravity
. This scientist something concentration measured and calculated the. Thus was born a unit of measurement of power - horsepower, which subsequently received universal recognition. The modern power unit watt is named in honor of the great English scientist and originally written Watt.
Much, much made Watt for development and energy, and manufacturing in general. He brilliantly caught the requirements of time and better than the others responded to them. But this is all that is called, the objective conditions as well as the same environment, communications, life, family, character, finally, 'his majesty case'?
. Childhood and adolescence, James proceeded in a quiet patriarchal town of Greenock, Scotland, which is 30 miles from Glasgow
. Love for the craft gave the child worked on the construction of ships of the father, and the desire for knowledge - his grandfather, a professor of mathematics. At 18 years young man went for a specialty in Glasgow. Being a student in the workshops, Watt, the first two years acquired skills engraver, a master at making math, geodesy, optical devices, various navigational tools.
On the advice of his uncle - Professor Myuirheda, the young inventor receives a mechanic in Glasgow University. It was here that he began to explore and improve models of steam engines. Since then, the heat engine is the main content of his research.
What is the exact date of the appearance of the universal engine? This question can not give an unambiguous answer, as the inventor of the process of creating their offspring has a considerable length of time. The formal guidelines can serve as 1769, when Watt patented the first version of the engine, and in 1782, when it was introduced in the practice of advanced design.
Watt was to the liking of sociable and humane. He easily made friends with people, and remarkably was able to have them to yourself. In a short time he acquired at the university a lot of friends and acquaintances. Among them were such venerable scholars as Anderson, Black, Robinson.
But life is dictated by its own rules. Had to maintain relationships not only with academics, but also with industrialists, bankers, members of parliament. The actual holders of the capital represented for Watt's a very specific interest. Immensely tired of the material constraint, already well-known inventor once bitterly confessed: 'I would prefer to stand in front of a charged gun, than do accounts and transactions'.
. Financial difficulties forced Watt's already in middle age to geodetic survey, . work on the construction of canals, . construct ports and jetties, . go, . Finally, . on economically bonded union with businessman John Rebeca, . Victims soon complete financial collapse,
Money Watt situation began to improve after he entered into business relations with the already mentioned Birmingham industrialist Matthew Bolton. But this followed a very curious for Russia reader episode.
Until then all the same was a wise foreign and domestic policies of Catherine's Russia. Dvor and the Academy of Sciences to know what to invest, and did not spare them, just to get to his talented European minds. In the golden age of science for the Empress Catherine II, the scientists traveled to Russia, but not of it. Actually, a lot fell to the lot attendants almost all the nine muses. It is quite natural that one of those who came to the attention of championing the welfare of the Fatherland from the banks of the Neva, was James Watt. Proposed material content and it was great, and it is extremely necessary.
Watt's intention to go to Russia led to unprecedented turmoil in his homeland. 'Oh my God, - the poet Darwin, grandfather of the naturalist, - as I was scared when I heard that the Russian bear caught you with its huge claw and pulls in Russia! I implore you not to travel unless it is possible ... I hope that your fiery car leave you here '.
Let's not idealize the British entrepreneurs. Not high patriotic feelings, and economic interest and a clear calculation of Bolton, was forced to do everything possible to Watt signed a contract prepared by a quick breeder. You bet! After all, according to the document, two-thirds of revenues from the use of machines in enterprises uattovskih industrialist came last.
There is a common belief that Watt - engineer, inventor, designer, but not more. This is absolutely not. He was a talented and knowledgeable scientists who have made a great contribution to the theoretical basis of heat. He followed closely what has already been done and done in the study of human. He especially mastered the German language to read thick volumes Leupolda and French - for shtudirovaniya works Belidora. From extensive theoretical heritage Watt's three main directions of his research: study of the properties of water and water vapor, the study of heat of vaporization, the definition of the relationship between pressure and temperature of water vapor.
. 'The phenomenon of Watt's' - this and a lot of lessons that will engage the attention of several generations of historians
. We say only a single, but very typical of the XIX and even more so for the twentieth century. In personality Watt's the first time, harmonious and manifested a complete symbiosis of research and design engineer that eventually grew into a steady rate for the representatives of applied science.
. Research and design activity in Watt's declining years significantly decreased
. Force did not add, age took its. 'We will continue to produce those things - he wrote in 1785 a scientist Bolton - who we already know how to do, and give the rest of the young people who are not threatened with loss of money or a name'. And to ensure stable and secure income from their offspring, . Watt on cue Bolton got famous patent, . legally fenced until 1800 the creator of the steam engine and its companion, an industrialist from breathing in the back of energetic and agile competitors,
. Watt lived a wonderful and long life. He died at the age of 83 years and was buried in the parish church in Hendsvorte beside the ashes of his long-term associate of Bolton. Soon, in Westminster Abbey in gratitude erected a splendid fellow son of Britain monument, perfectly executed a talented sculptor Uantri.