Henry Fielding (Fielding Henry)( English novelist and playwright, essayist)
Comments for Henry Fielding (Fielding Henry)
Biography Henry Fielding (Fielding Henry)
. By false genealogy, . born Henry Fielding back to the Habsburgs - 'The Family' features found in its single image, . made by the hand of the famous masters of the satirical genre painting by William Hogarth (true, . after his death),
. In any case, the graphs in relatives were, and he himself belonged to Fielding impoverished family branch. His father was promoted to general. On the maternal line Fielding came from Somerset gentry (medium and small gentry, adapted to the development of capitalism). In the Sharpe-Manor Park, near Glastonbury, and the future writer was born.
. In tracing the life path Fielding, we will always be present when the fight began competing in it: a duel between the rake and scientists, storage and spendthrift, the classical training of the artist and showman, athlete and aesthetes
. Fielding has been characterized by hard work, . industriousness, . Thirst for knowledge - and at the same time a kind of selfless impracticality, . gentility: after his family faithfully believed in his royal origin, . and in favor of such a pedigree subsequently counted Roman nose, . tall, . solid build and an impressive view of the writer.,
. When Henry was 11 years old, his mother died
. His father, a Protestant, married a widow with two children, Catholic - all reminiscent of the Victorian novel's plot. For young Fielding started a great family lawsuit grandmother and father. Henry will be a young man, when legal battles will end in favor of the grandmother.
In 1719 Fielding - moody teenager, deprived of family, quarreling with her stepmother. Front of him - not the open road, . as to his future hero, . 'foundling' Tom Jones, . a privileged prison called Eaton, . where there is a spartan spirit and assiduously studied the classics, . where young suppress squalid sanitary conditions and the unrestrained assault and battery,
. Here, among the future composers, politicians and philosophers, young Fielding talked to Homer and Ovid, recited Demosthenes and Cicero, he wrote poetry in ancient Greek. This does not just escapes, including the 18-year-old graduate with his 'bride', 15-year-old Sarah, Andrew. This is the first amorous adventure Fielding had a comic denouement: the fugitives were caught, and the uncle and guardian of the bride hired a country boy 'wallop' lover. Frustrated by a lover nailed to the wall abuser following statement: 'I am writing to inform you that Andrew Tucker and his son John jesters peas and a bloody coward. Personally signed by Henry Fielding. "
Fielding left Eton in 1724 or 1725. His whereabouts in 1726 and 1727 respectively covered with a mist of uncertainty. Then announced in London, . but in the years 1728-1729 he was studying at the Faculty of Philology University of Leiden in Holland (in the second year of study leave university because of lack of funds), . then finally returns to London, . which is, . in his own words, . a choice: 'to become a hired cab or hack',
. Creative career Fielding began as a poet and playwright. At the end of January 1728 London's largest publisher released its satire 'Masquerade', . addressed to 'Count X-d-r-r-y' (popular in those years, opera librettist and the director, . arranges in days, . when there was no opera, . Masquerades from nine in the evening to seven in the morning) and signed a landmark alias: 'Lemuel Gulliver, . poet-laureate of the King of Lilliput ',
. The text was accompanied by Hogarth's engravings 'Masquerades and operas'. Moreover, before his departure from London in 1728 at the Theater Dryuri Lane was put Fielding's first comedy 'Love under different masks' - a purely amateur, in many ways mimic the experience of. On his return he began to write for the theater professionally.
His dramatic activity continued incomplete ten years in the limelight in 1737 saw the last play Fielding - satire 'Political Yearbook 1736'. All he, . personally and in collaboration, . written 26 plays - a lot for a person, . whose name will adorn the world literature on the category of prose (for comparison, . Shakespearean canon - of 37 pieces): among them a few comedies of manners, . only in his work 'serious comedy' or 'middle-class drama' - 'Modern man' (1732); The bulk were farces, . burlesque (musical play crudely comic character), . 'ballad opera' and political satire,
. In Fielding's farces derived a gallery of 'Heroes Day': empty secular dandy, half-educated student, a girl overstayer provintsialochka, seduces glitter of city life, revolting from the rock 'pedants' - bigots and hypocrites of all stripes. In contrast to the democratic farce, burlesque assumed in the spectator a certain culture: 'The tragedy of tragedies, or Life and Death of boy-to-finger' (1731) Fielding two-thirds - a bizarre mixture of quotations from various sources. But the author surprisingly well out of the situation: the hero he was made a burlesque hero tales, and from the play and to enjoy the stalls and the gallery - each according to his capabilities.
. Unlike traditional farce and burlesque, the entire property of the century were 'ballad opera' and political satire
. Classic example - 'beggar's Opera' John Gay, combining the literary and musical parody political satire. Striking artistic sensitivity Fielding, . already in 1731 he staged 'Welsh opera, . The wife, or under the heel '(later the name -' Opera Hornbeam Street '), . where in full voice in the political overtones of the 'Newgate (ie prison) pastorals',
. In satires as 'Pasquino' (1736) and 'Historical Yearbook', using techniques-comedy rehearsal ( 'theater in theater'), Fielding openly action unfolded under the sign of 'all corrupt, all purchasable'. In 1737, under pressure from the prime minister lost his patience, Robert Walpole, the parliament approved a law on theatrical censorship. 'Fielding was thus open the way Aristophanes and Moliere, - say a hundred and fifty years later, Shaw. - ... He chose the path of Cervantes - and since then has become the pride of the English novel in world literature, and English drama of shame '.
. Moving away from the drama, Fielding was determined in a legal corporation, Middle Temple, and studied law for three years - it became his profession
. However, smashing his pen did not stay long in inaction: Fielding publicist - conspicuous figure in the early 1740-ies.
He became a novelist almost by accident, wrote 'Shamelu' (published anonymously) - a parody of the novel C. Richardson's 'Pamela'. Podnatorev in the art of burlesque and caustic peresmeshnichestva, he left no living space on the conceited and calculating burzhuazke, revealing huckstering motivated her ostentatious chastity. As a parody of 'Pamela' was conceived and the novel 'The history of adventure Endrusa Joseph and his friend Abraham Adams' (1742). Since that time, he recognized writer. The speed and force of his amazing growth. Here is an example of the then news of his works: the late autumn of 1741 he started 'Journey to the underworld and others' (1743), . But in December came the second part of 'Pamela' Richardson, . and Fielding, . aside 'Journey', . sat for the 'Joseph Endrusa' and in February 1742 published a novel published in spring 1742, he continues to work on 'Journey', . but in the summer again leaves him and takes over 'the life story of the late Jonathan Wilde of the Great' (1743), . at the same time announcing its intention to publish by subscription three volumes of his works, . and which appears in April 1743 with an unfinished 'Journey',
. Although all three things were written as if at the same time, it is clear that the 'journey' and 'Jonathan Wild' linked with the journalism and drama Fielding 1730-ies, and 'Joseph Endrus' - novel, first-born, the harbinger of a mature Fielding. I want to talk about them in this sequence: 'Journey' - 'Jonathan Wild' - 'Joseph Endrus'.
Literary source 'Travels' steel 'Talk of the dead' and 'True Story' of Lucian Samasaty (ca. 120 - OK. 190), and more - Menippean satire (named after the ancient Greek philosopher and writer-satirist III century BC. Menippus), . which it attracted non-life-likelihood, . freedom fiction, . tasuyuschego in one plot century and the country and would suit most unexpected meetings (including, . author with his characters), . abrupt change of character (fall - rise), . phenomenon of truth in the paradoxical guise (the virtuous burglar, . example),
. Of the more recent samples of the genre Fielding took into account the 'Dreams' (1627) Spanish writer F.Kevedo-and-Villegas (1580-1645), . British satirical essay in the spirit of moralizing R. Style and Dzh.Addisona (a few 'news' from the world and appeared in their 'Chatter'), . 'Gulliver's Travels' (1726) J,
. Swift (islet Glabbdobdribb, otherwise - the island of sorcerers or magicians).
. The meaning of the underworld journey from Fielding is that the spirits are unworthy of happiness, returned from the world beyond the earth, so that in the new life to atone for past sins
. Rarely is anyone able to immediately. For example, the hapless Emperor Julian the Apostate reincarnated 19 times: he started a slave at the end of IV century and ended with a dance teacher in the middle of XIV century. Who was interested in the XVIII century England Julian? Probably, Fielding was enough that in the common understanding Julian was a hypocrite and a hypocrite. Each chapter tells about the next incarnation of Julian, it's his new role, 'nature', given in the form of popular narrative genres. Then existing adventurous, criminal, gallant novels, as borrowed from France, and national origin - is, for the most part, 'biographies' in the first person with the indispensable 'morality'. These are they here, but written in an extremely compact. Together, they give the 'review' era, this parade of its vices, its types.
. With known reserves of life impressions 'review' were taken to the bad infinity, and by hastily explained fragmentary writings referring to the fact that the negligence of the donor much in the manuscript has been lost
. This reader got - albeit fragmentary - the history of Europe for a thousand years.
Following the 'Journey' in 'Jonathan Wild' has also become a central theme of the perverted greatness and inevitability of fate. Jonathan Wild - a real person. Fence and the organizer of a criminal gang, he was hanged in 1725. Execution Wilde, was a huge crowd, spawned a whole literature about him. Two of his biography written D. Defoe. In the Wild struck by the coexistence of hardened villain and respectable business man. Surprisingly both: first, 1720 has steadily ascended the star Walpole, and insightful minds soon noticed certain similarities in the methods of his reign with 'practice' Wilde (bribery, bribery, massacre of undesirables, shameless cynicism). Gradually maturing allegory, by which the state government, carried out by known methods, and the cause of the criminal world are one and the same. 'Jonathan Wild' Fielding's written in the genre of satirical biography. Call the baseness immeasurably fallen man 'grandeur' and, accordingly, to restructure the entire scale of assessments, Fielding created a symbol of corruption and dishonesty. A gang of the same laws as in the world of formal time predatory outlaws passed. We do not have a copyright recognition, but, I think, Fielding was supposed to love this hero. After Wilde - propulsive plot, and Fielding kindles from him not only satirical lightning, but simply comical crackers. The question of 'correction' Wilde does not even arise, it is the very embodiment of evil and the antithesis of his acts, of course, the embodiment of goodness - his former school friend, a jeweler Hartfri. His exemplary way he has long irritated the critics, denying him a believable. But more important than the alternative: an ordinary person, not a hero, Hartfri stood against evil, he reveals an ordinary greatness which does not need to put in quotes or defined as 'false'. In this rainbow does not alter the final of Wilde and his terrible truth.
. The origin of the novel 'Joseph Endrus', as has been said, usually see a literary freak: What began as a parody of 'Pamela', he has outgrown the original concept and became a creative rebuttal Richardson
. But one should not exaggerate parody purposes Fielding in connection with Richardson's novel, moreover, that the author himself as announced in the title of the book: 'Written in imitation of the manner of Cervantes, author of' Don Quixote '. Fielding 'imitated' Cervantes-epic, proudly aware of the innovative value of the enterprise: '... the literature of that kind, which until now no one has, as I recall, did not try to write in our language'.
. Pastor Adams, wandering in London to seek a publisher for his sermons, and brought 'comic novel' to the epic scope
. What to expect from Joseph, concerned only the persistence of chastity? Only heroic behavior in alkovnyh scenes. A pastor pointed to the reader on the road, . congested, . who robbed guests, . rob coach, . help suffering, . offend unresponsive - various live road! The novel leaves the impression of a noisy crowded, . although the actors in it less, . than in 'Pamela' (respectively, . 81 and 134), . not to mention the 'Don Quixote' (669),
. Adams here - the protagonist, and, of course, is unfair that for brevity, the novel is traditionally called a different name. Unlike Don Quixote, he is not defenseless in the world of savagery and arbitrariness: if you do not act exhortations, in the case take the last argument - a pair of kulaks and gnarled stick. He is an advocate of active assistance, a fanatic of good deeds. From it originated the line 'philanthropy' in the English novel. At this bustling background of Joseph and his beloved Fanny are shadows, they are conditional, and as conventionally better off their fate: a beneficent case returns to the heroes of these parents (Joseph is a nobleman). All this, perhaps, fabulously, but the heroes have the right to a simple, no one hurt happiness, they proved they know how to stand up for him - and good that they got it. Innovation is not novel in the plot, . mimics the restructuring motives then fiction: in a number of contemporary novelists Fielding only realized the necessity of the theory of the novel (hence the title of one of the founding fathers of the genre), and made approaches to it in the first chapters of 'Joseph Endrusa'.,
. The final design of its aesthetic education program of the novel will find in the introductory chapters to the 'History of Tom Jones, a Foundling "(1749)
. Fielding not because defending the legitimacy of 'comic novel', . that comic for the most part it was his gift: a 'comic' in terms familiar to him classicist poetics, . he meant purely human, . earthly, . everyday, . ie, . we say today, . he advocated the democratic content of the art,
. 'Tom Jones' - vertex creation Fielding committed by its architectonics, skilfully built intrigue interwoven with real historical events, a year or two ago, shook England (Jacobite rebellion). During the time after 'Joseph Endrusa' Fielding far away in the art of creating a multi-dimensional life. Tom Jones - not walking like a virtue Joseph, beautiful spiritual inclinations do not prevent him to perform (albeit with the best intentions) completely reprehensible acts. These costs are overflowing its forces and not very strict morals at the same time antagonized the hero (and the author, . course) notebooks moralists, . on whose faces are represented in the novel half-brother Tom debauchee Blifil and his worthy mentors Tvakom and Skveyr,
. But even the enemies of the novel were agreed that his heroine Sophia Western warmer and most charming Clarissa (Richardson's second novel was a "warm" novelty, and Fielding, by the way, its greatly appreciated). If the image of Tom decided to find some features of the author, then its restriction on reviews of friends and relatives, Fielding lovingly conveyed the charm and beauty of his wife Charlotte, who died in 1744. Second marriage (1744) he married his own housekeeper, became a devoted wife and helpmate, facilitate his last, painful years of his life. Tense from a young age literary work, . multidifficult Acting Magistrate (from 1748) and founder of the city police, . social reform activities (political pamphlets, . exposing corruption among other politicians and the power of lucre; treatises on the device workmen to-mov, . the elimination of gambling, etc.) and, . must admit, . neberezhny to my life - all shattered health Fielding,
. It is natural that in his latest novel, 'Amelia' (1752) comic muted start, the author has prevailed in the most severe moralist folds. From amorous intrigues Fielding first moved to the image of family life, as if razomknuv finals of their previous novels, which all ended in a wedding. Lively character Tom inflicted suffering, as a rule, those who deserve it, here is a bad egg Captain Booth upset loving (and loved!) Wife. Unusually in the novel sound a note of melancholy, morbid reflection. All this could be the promise of further development - in the direction of the psychological novel. However, the 'future' is no time left.
'Diary of trip to Lisbon' was written on board the 'Queen of Portugal' in July-August 1754. On the advice of doctors Fielding was forced to quickly change the climate. Travel lasted 50 (!) Days. Limited in their actions circumstances (around the sea) and ill health, is betrayed by forced reflection, introspection, observation. His pen is given new life and the captain of the ship, and his nephew - 'land captain', and the couple landlords coastal inn. Fielding, . certainly, . aware of the desperation of their situation, . and yet, . much in this book excerpt, . dignity, . close attention to, . suffering the hardships of the way with him! Significantly, and calm, . prophetic confidence writer in, . that after death, . 'When this small room, . where I was sitting at the moment, . replaced by an even more squalid room, . I respectfully will be read by people, . I never did not know and have not seen, and I will never know and I will not see '.,
. Henry Fielding died in Lisbon on October 8, 1754 and is buried in the same
. On his headstone bears the eloquent Latin epitaph, . but the best word to say about him a century later by the world famous 'Vanity Fair', William Thackeray, . suicide after reading the book of a great writer: "The courageous Englishman Henry Fielding '.,