Johann Gottlieb Fichte( Philosophy)
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Biography Johann Gottlieb Fichte
The fame of the philosopher Fichte came to a sudden. In 1792, when he should get the final work and. Kant on the application of his ideas 'Critic' to the sphere of religion, in Koenigsberg, was published anonymously 'experience of every kind of criticism of revelation', immediately adopted for the expected work of Kant. When it appeared that the author - Fichte, home teacher, of whom one had not previously heard, he immediately became famous.
Discovering for yourself thanks to the unexpected recognition of the road to academic posts, Fichte settled in the Duchy of Weimar and in 1794 became professor of philosophy at Jena. Among his friends were Schiller, Friedrich Schlegel and Goethe. He has lectured on the appointment of a scientist (ethics of science), on the theory of law, for morality and the new, he founded the discipline - 'naukoucheniyu', which provided (without any preconditions) justification of scientific knowledge. Soon, however, between Fichte and the part of professors, as well as the Lutheran clergy of the Duchy of having a conflict, whose origins can be traced to the characteristics of the ideological climate of the era, and to a certain extent and identity of Fichte.
. The heyday of his activity came in the years when the fragmented Germanic states were involved in the orbit of world politics, first under the influence of the French Revolution, and then as an object of Napoleon's aggression
. German burghers of the town, to the lowest strata of which originally belonged to Fichte, inclined to acceptance of marching from the Rhine-feudal ideas, but not the terror that was associated with them. In addition, it could not accept that the price of getting rid of feudal subordination to foreign rule.
That indomitable and tireless, with which Fichte expressed this position to a certain extent, according to his biographers, is related to the influence of his mother, a woman of power and strong. Its features perceive and Fichtean authoritarianism, intolerance of other views and self-righteousness.
The ancestors of Fichte's maternal Do-NII were petty traders linen, on his father - the rural weavers. He was born in the Saxon village Rammenau (District Oberlauzits) and was the eldest of eight children. Se-Mya led quite a peasant way of life, Fichte in the village tending geese.
. He early showed amazing ability to assimilate and remember, as well as a love for preaching and preaching style, in a spirit which, in essence, and wrote his major works
. One non-cue Baron von Miltits late for the Sunday sermon in Rammenau and peasants told him that if you call 'Gusyatnikov Fichte', he repeated to him all the sermon by heart. And I was. Struck von Miltits offered parents ten Johann Gottlieb to help in his upbringing. This Fichte managed to finish private school, and in 1780, he entered the theological faculty of Jena, then (1784) University of Leipzig. However, he served as a tutor in various places in Saxony. Pedagogy has become an important part of his vocation. In 1788 he received a university degree, . and in the same year we find him a tutor in Zurich, . and in 1791-meters - about Danzig, . the family of Count Krokowa, . which, . as his wife and family, . was a devoted admirer of the then already world-renowned Kant - 'pride of the human spirit', . as it is called Fichte in one of his letters of those years,
In June and August 1791 Fichte pilgrimage to Kant in Konigsberg. First visit deceived waiting Fichte. Kant, who constantly received visitors from Germany and other countries, could not give an obscure master a lot of time, and at the very Fichte heard them lecture Kant turned the dream. However, Fichte continued the study of his works, written, remaining in Konigsberg for another month, his 'critique of revelation' and returned it to Kant. Their second meeting was then quite different. 'Just now I saw in him traits worthy of the great spirit, which permeates his writings', - Fichte wrote in his diary. Kant not only approved the manuscript, but also helped Fichte to find a publisher for her, and gave him a more favorable teacher's place (Count Krokowa, which as described above).
This was followed by the already mentioned professorship in Jena. There Fichte because of its intransigence appeared many opponents, especially after he lost the support of Kant. One of the greatest representatives of classical German philosophy, Fichte believed that his teachings - it is only properly understood explanation of Kant's philosophy, but in fact far from it went, and especially from its usual contemplation. Kant said that Fichte too far off from its basic principles, supposedly developing their. For example, refused to 'things in themselves', and for the reason rejected by Kant recognized the ability to intuition. Since after 1794 conservatism Jena professors increased, . Fichte was reminded of his earlier (1792-1793), . pamphlets in defense of the French Revolution 'Claim of the sovereigns of Europe freedom of thought, . they are still oppressed 'and' to correct the judgments of the public about the French Revolution (with regard to its validity) '.,
. Fichte and then acknowledged after the connection between his theoretical beliefs and practice of the French revolyutsii.ona eliminated 'rooted prejudices' of life, . and he used his naukoucheniem erase their traces in the philosophy, . claiming it freedom from all authority,
. For this and for more explicit than Kant's restriction of religion alone, the moral sphere Fichte opponents accused him of atheism. In fact, this accusation was artificial, because morality and as such, is Fichte, ultimately, a religious character - he was aware of the role of religion in the consolidation of the forces of national liberation. Even in the last year of his life Fichte called admissions, as he joined the militia and soldiers 'immerse themselves in God'.
In the doctrine of Fichte certainly were elements of pantheism (God and the unity of all things), but his opponents portrayed them as atheism. Fichte defended himself with his usual passion, the dispute moved into personal accusations and appeals to the authorities. Neither repression nor even a direct rebuke of the Duke is not followed, but Fichte had to write as many explanatory notes, and he was so tired of the attacks that he thought it best to accept the invitation of any other university. The first was an invitation from Russia Empire, the chair of philosophy built up then Kharkov University, then - from Landsguta in Bavaria and a number of other German university centers. In 1805 Fichte lectured University of Erlangen, then living in Berlin and there during the French occupation, the very risk, reads 'speech to the German nation', which calls for struggle against foreign domination. A number of works of Fichte these last few years devoted to the protection of freedom of thought and projects abolition of the nobility and the feudal privileges.
Important as a starting point of Fichte's philosophy of his works in 1794 'On the concept naukoucheniya' and 'Fundamentals of naukoucheniya' and continue them in 1797 'first' and 'second introduction to naukouchenie'. Posing as Kant, the task of justification of science, Fichte, Kant violated Enron delicate balance between the subject and the present, but unknowable thing in itself, and firmly declares only existing entity, I. However, Fichte repeatedly explained that there was not referring to individual human thumb and I, as an absolute entity, their activity creates a non-self, that is all that is in the mind and nature. In particular, disclosed supraindividual I in the later (Lectures 1804, . 1812, . 1813) variants naukoucheniya, . where I stands as an absolute knowledge, . reaching the absolute identity of being, . as the subject of the Universe, . its ties beginning, . principle of activity.,
. The universal identity, identity I am I do not have Fichte simple statement of unity of intellect, as in Kant, but is approved by an act of will
. This formulation in the world not through the intellect, and will Fichte anticipated line A. Schopenhauer - Hartmann in German philosophy. However, in contrast to their world blind and unconscious will, the will of Fichte is reasonable and can be determined with good. A prerequisite for its action is an integral of the freedom of the individual self. Above the man should not be a master, but the Act (and his earthly incarnation - State): 'Anyone who considers himself a master of others, himself slave'. The role of the philosopher - to be the spokesman (via naukouchenie) ideas of liberty, 'a witness of truth' and 'educator of humanity'. His truly preaching pathos Fichte gave the German academic thought first of her peculiar little accusatory and civilian pathos.
The freedom given to man as an opportunity, this opportunity is education. Educating most adequately implemented the philosophy, but for most people this is not available, they must develop an inner freedom (the consciousness of the moral law) in the sensory-symbolic form of religion. Foreign human freedom, ideally provided by the state: it must carry through the laws of freedom of each, limiting it only to the freedom of others. It also must ensure that each of its citizens to exercise their rights had been vested with the property ( 'The system of teachings on the Law', 1812). In this version of the understanding of 'social contract', as well as in the doctrine of original goodness of human nature, Rousseau, Fichte, adjacent to. But Fichte underline 'organismal' and (again, ideally, in his utopia), the closed nature of the state. Only science and exchange of cultural achievements form a bond between nations, trade and industry are the same in each of them must be distinct and not go beyond it ( 'closed commercial state', 1800)
. The real story is a process of gradual development of an ideal state - from the Greek polis to the present, . which, . considers Fichte (especially in Berlin and Erlangen period), . more, . than any of the earlier epochs, . needs faith,
. The Modern Philosophy ', . emerged as a system of Kant - Fichte, and knowing that, . that freedom and morality - in essence religious category, . as it marks the arrival of mankind to true self-consciousness, . provides a basis for both science, . and Faith ( 'The main features of the modern era', . 1805).,
. It should be noted that the ideas of Fichte, especially in the field of philosophy of history, found a response in Russia's public opinion - in the first half (AI Galich, DL Kryukov, VG Belinsky), and in the middle of the nineteenth century (M . Bakunin, Petrashevists)
. In general, the direct impact on Fichte's philosophy and social sciences are largely gone beyond Germany. But in these geographical limits, it was deep and indirectly flowed into the world thought. Fichte's definition of the foundations of science was the starting point for a more extensive program in this direction, undertaken by GWF Hegel. Early stage of FV Schelling's natural philosophy was also based fihteanskim. So important for the idea of Fichte's concept of active I served, . one hand, . forerunner of modern concepts of constructing the entity (eg, . in quantum physics, . partly in human cognition), . the other, . justification for the active involvement of philosophy in public life or,
. Much has been influenced by Fichte, German romanticism (in Fichte's idea of 'productive imagination', . I am connecting with the not-I) and the development of German national consciousness, . although in the latter respect, Fichte polemical language of 'superiority' of the Germans, . made in the heat of the liberation movement, . the object of extreme abuse,
. The same part can be said about Fichtean utopia closed state, ensuring the needs of the individual and actually attempts to freedom. This utopia served as one of the sources of German socialism пг1пг century, but also its totalitarian tendencies. Indirect influence of Fichte promoted, thus the emergence of German fascism.
In 1814, during the last war of liberation against Napoleon, Fichte, joined the ranks of volunteers, and died of typhus.