FRANKLIN, Benjamin( One of the 'founding fathers' U.S. politician and diplomat, a great scientist)
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Biography FRANKLIN, Benjamin
Benjamin Franklin, one of the 'founding fathers' United States, was born in Boston. The fifteenth child of Josiah Franklin and Abia was very inquisitive and eager to learn. But his father, owner of soap factories, and a candle shop, he could not afford to pay for the education of his son. Therefore, Benjamin was forced to leave school early and work with his father, and then with one of his older brothers, James, owner of a small printing. Soon, Ben was a great compositor, but to help his brother he rashotelos (they often quarreled).
He started an independent life, when he was not yet 17 years old. After leaving Boston, Ben moved to Philadelphia, then the most chic city in North America. Surprisingly quickly ensconced in the local print shop, he was earning decent money, which was quite enough on him, and the family. Deborah Reed, with whom Ben was unmarried, gave his daughter Sarah and son, who died at the age of four (in addition, she brought up the illegitimate son of her husband - William). Podnakopili money, Franklin opened his own publishing house, which published "The Pennsylvania newspaper ', which became quite popular in Philadelphia. Newspaper case brought Benjamin wealth and fame brought a small collection of anecdotes, which he published under the title 'Almanac Poor Richard' (some of his sharpness Americans still remembered).
In his spare time, Franklin business in public life and passionately preached fashionable in those days the French Enlightenment's views on freedom and justice. At the initiative of the American Voltairiens, who called to build a life 'on the basis of reason', Philadelphians paved streets, organized a fire brigade and local police.
Just following the example of French encyclopedists Benjamin placed scientific experiments. He argued that lightning is a form of electrical discharge, among his many inventions - the lightning rod, glasses with two lenses, and even 'franklinovskaya oven' (famous in our 'stove').
This list could be much longer, if Benjamin did not give up scientific Studies for a political career, which began with the work as a clerk in the legislature of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia postmaster. Celebrity he gained by becoming one of the authors of the four most important documents in U.S. history: the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the two peace treaties.
. As a diplomat, Franklin made his first appearance in 1757, when he defended the interests of Pennsylvania in London
. Appearance at the court of King's messenger of the British colony provoked a barrage of ridicule: Franklin with his long hair, slovenly and uncouth manners, . looked in that era men's wigs even more obscenely, . than a hippie in our 'Komsomol' 60-e,
. However, Franklin's such an attitude does not bother. Moreover, he quickly gained him many admirers among the European 'volnolyubtsev' and of the high representatives of science, he created a reputation as one of the 'giants' of philosophy and science.
For example, the Russian envoy in France, Prince Ivan Baryatinsky, an adherent of the ideas of the French Enlightenment, just doted on the U.S. 'doctor'. A Russian minister (then the name of the ambassador) in The Hague, Prince Dmitry Golitsyn Benjamin sent a long description of his experiments with electricity (but the answer to it and not wait). Dr. Franklin returned to America in 1775 and the next day after his arrival he was elected a delegate to the Second Continental Congress. He took an active part in drafting the Declaration of Independence (though modestly stated that only the 'edited' text, prepared by Jefferson). And then went to Paris for the war credits, and help. Because it was his zeal and Relations in 1778 signed an agreement under which France was the first country officially recognized the independence of the North American colonies and set them allied relations
. Franklin and other members of the American delegation were given an audience with Louis XVI (he left 15 years before his death on the scaffold), which assured his ideological enemies - American Republicans in the inviolability of the signed contract.
. This document has played a crucial role in the victory over the British colonists and the international recognition of the colonies as a sovereign state
. And the final outcome of the war for independence were summed up in Paris where he again led the U.S. delegation Franklin. The agreement was signed on September 3, 1783 mainly due to the support provided by the U.S. 'Naihristianneyshim His Majesty' King of France (as well as mediation of the Russian Empress Catherine II and Germanic emperor). Under the agreement the former metropolis recognized the new state, whose borders were established: in the west - up the Mississippi River in the south - to the northern limits of Florida and in the northern-D - to the Great Lakes.
In 1785, Franklin returned to America, and two years later took the most lively (despite his advanced age) participated in the preparation of Philadelphia Meeting. That he was instructed to propose the adoption of the American Constitution. In the final day of the Congress 82-year-old 'founding father', . too weak, . to make himself, . asked a delegate from Pennsylvania to read out his message, . which were set out arguments in favor of approval of the project according to the composition of the meeting (in circumvention of existing legal authority - the Continental Congress),
. The majority of delegates before the end of the country questioned the need for such a political 'somersault', and only by the highest authority of the Franklin, the Constitution was adopted.
It should be noted that in his old age, some eccentric character of Franklin, in particular, his unusual taste for amorous adventures, only intensified. Example, in Paris on the subject of courting the 70-year policy has become a 30-year-old Briyon de Jouy. However, flirt and carnal pleasures in the society courtesans quite consistent with the then-mores. There were rumors that the last intimate connection of Franklin was the widow of the philosopher Helvetius. Franklin even proposed to her in 1779, but was refused.
In 1926 he was issued a very curious letter to Franklin, which was kept in the archives of the Department of State. In its 39-year-old Ben advised his friend to marry a mature women, because they will not organize a tragedy because of adultery. They will surround a man with care and attention, so they understand that this is their last chance to establish conjugal life, in addition, they are less likely to have a baby, and children - it is unnecessary problems and inconvenience. And most importantly - a man will not tear of remorse, if he breaks with a woman in years, but not with a young, innocent girl. In Russia the name of Franklin, 'pundit' and advocate of progressive ideas, was known not only in Moscow and St. Petersburg but in provincial Russia. Thus, American Ledyard, who made an expedition to Siberia, he wrote in 1787 that the Governor-General of Barnaul said at a reception toasts to the health of Dr. Franklin, and General Washington.
. The views of the Franklin and other 'founding fathers' promoted Nikolai Novikov (to publish pro-American articles in his newspaper "Moscow News") and Alexander Radishchev, . who devoted several passages in praise of America's famous book 'A Journey from Petersburg to Moscow',
. In addition, he praised the American revolution in the ode 'Liberty'. Nikolai Karamzin in his ode, summarizes the eighteenth century, among the greatest figures of the era mentions of Washington and Franklin. But in fairness it should be noted that none of these Russian educators had not visited a distant 'citadel of freedom' and in his delight was based, apparently, only a book knowledge of the country.
. Franklin pretty much done for the development of scientific relations between the U.S. and Russia
. In 1789 on his initiative Catherine Dashkova was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society (the first woman and the first representative of Russia, which won this honor). In response, some American scientists have gained recognition in Russia.
Catherine the Great, thinking the world's vocabulary, wished to include words from the lexicon of Indian. After the Marquis de Lafayette, she transferred to Franklin and Washington's request for assistance. This is largely thanks to Catherine in the U.S. began the study of Indian languages and compiling their dictionaries, the first of which went to Franklin Lafayette for the transfer to Russia.
In mutual awarding academic titles and ranks, we can note translated works by American artists who emerged in Russia. This is primarily Selected Works of Franklin, including his 'Autobiography'. And in 1789 he became a foreign member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
These are interesting facts from the biography of the 'founding father'. And although his image is not among the four most proud of bas-reliefs of famous American figures, immortalized in the rock Rushmore, a portrait of Franklin is known to all mankind: he paints in the most prestigious hundred-dollar bills.