Qianlong( Chinese emperor in 1736-1795)
Comments for Qianlong
In hunting area Ch'ing bogdohanov in Rehe, north of the Great Wall, at the end of June day in 1722 was completed oblavnaya hunting. Tired and satisfied the Emperor Xuan was already ordered to return home, when suddenly the unexpected happened. Beaters raised full-grown brown bear, a fierce and terrible. A rare guest in those places, he apparently came down from the slopes of Yanshan. The beast took his last fight, as befits a bomber, recklessly and violently. Pierced by several arrows at once, he threw himself on the enemy side ripped one of the horses and seriously injuring two rangers. The air shook neigh, roar, the cries and moans.
Xuan loved danger, and, taking a hunting knife with a silver handle, was about to get off the saddle, as he remembered that the number was to be her favorite grandson - 12-year-old Qianlong. The teenager did not run away. Sitting on his pony, he had his left hand pulling on the reins, and with the right clutching a dagger combat Manchu - a gift to his grandfather. Lips compressed, his brows knitted, arms holding right - the blade forward, eyes fixed on the bear. Thrilled Xuan even for a moment forgot about the beast. Lovchy finally dumped the brown and ended with his last stroke, it revenge for his recent fear and anger. 'Take off his skin! ", . - Ordered the old emperor and, . looking for grandson, . newly brightened face: 'I'm not mistaken! All of me! Swear, . it will be the Son of Heaven! " In the evening after the hunt, he summoned his son Inchzhenya: 'After you edit the Celestial bu-child Qianlong,
. It is my will. Remember! " In the winter of that year, Xuan died, and the following 13 years (1723-1735) of the rules Inchzhen. Sensing the imminent end, the day before his death - in October 1735 he made his heir Qianlong. This is only one version.
Will be done Xuan - Hong-Do came to the throne. The Emperor was 25 years old, and he was expected, as all we used to say, brilliant reign. During his reign, denoted motto Qianlong (immovable and Glorious, 1736-1795), Ch'ing empire reached, it seemed, the highest peak and power. Hence the great interest in the personality of the fifth emperor of the Qing Dynasty - the monarch, who for many years, the personification of 'the greatness and glory of Qianlong era'.
Even before the death of his father Qianlong received an excellent classical Confucian education and the title of Prince of the first degree (tsinvan), but much experience running the country had. First - to 1749 - he was assisted by two experienced politicians - Oertay and Zhang Tinyuy. After the death of the first and second retirement following 30 years (1750-1780) Qianlong of the rules themselves. Like his grandfather and father, he was a strong-willed monarch, went into all the affairs of the State. The first ministers were only a 'clerk' and performers will bogdohana, hardly daring him to object. "Their only obligation is to just rewrite the instructions of the Emperor '- used to say Hongli. Following the example of all of his brilliant grandfather (the father, he preferred not to mention), Qianlong claimed to be an exemplary monarch, to his 'official' duties is very serious, was industrious and diligent.
Every morning at the beginning of the Eleventh, he entered the office, located, as well as living rooms, inside the chamber Yansindyan in the Forbidden City - the palace complex in Beijing. Until lunch Qianlong read, view, sign (or reject), or dictating Secretary variety of different instruments, and also worked with the 'ministers' - Heads 'six departments' and dignitaries. Remaining after him (and published) a huge business documents (300 volumes) indicates prudence, . education, . insight, . strong character and sense of responsibility of this exemplary 'first official' huge bureaucracy Qing Empire,
. With all that Qianlong had not been 'infected' nepotism - not one of his many sons, he did not trust the important state of affairs. He was very strict with the palace eunuchs and did not allow them to rule, to which those highly sought. Qianlong was not a hardened reactionary and vividly responded to the dictates of time. So, he continued to hold the line Xuan administrative and economic reforms. Tax reform undertaken by his grandfather (1711-1716), his grandson and successor supplement accounting reform period 1740-1742. Since that time in the population registry into account not only the 'taxpayers' - men from 16 to 60 years, but 'netyaglye' - women, children, elderly, disabled and partly ethnic minorities in China.
Gradually, the period of 'brilliance and prosperity of the Empire' (1750-e - 1770) was replaced with the 1780-ies the era of domination favorite Heshenya, who did everything he could to the aging Qianlong did not know about the true situation in the State. Qianlong longed for the glory of the commander, on the laurels of a conqueror, imitating in this Xuan. But unlike his grandfather, he 'fought' not on the battlefield, and sitting in Beijing or in the summer residence of Mulan in Rehe. Qianlong himself compiled a list of ten of its 'great military victories'. The largest were considered to defeat the Oirat Khanate and the elimination of the Muslim state of East Turkestan. However, both these victories were due in the first place, not military might of the empire and military leadership 'talent' Son of Heaven, and the feudal disunity and civil strife in these two regions.
Lucky bogdohan general saw himself as the supreme arbiter of nearly the whole world. It is literally bursting with self-consciousness might. No doubt he and his right to 'pacify' the neighboring countries, that is, land in these orders of the Chinese, and so readily inclined to the new wars.
In 1782, the Qianlong increased the regular army of 60 thousand. man, that was worth 3 million annually. lyanov silver. Spoiled victories - the real and imaginary, Qianlong took an extremely painful defeat of their troops against the rebels in the beginning of the Peasants' War 'White Lotus' in the years 1796-1798. Son of Heaven could not realize that the end of his 'brilliant reign' blurred the success of these 'religious thugs'.
Considering himself a stronghold of Confucianism, his supreme authority and patron, Hongli every encouragement to scientists at a new processing and re-issue of ancient and medieval texts. For this, he organized the gigantic 'literary work'. Issue only one series 'Syku Quansheng' ( 'Imperial Library manuscripts into four sections') in 36 thousand volumes gave earnings multiple of intellectuals. For all that the emperor played a staunch enemy of dissent and free creativity.
Qianlong all wanted to be first, and sycophants, courtiers be strengthened him in this delusion. Just crazy literary work, confident in his genius, Hongli entered history as royal graphomaniac. So, he issued 40 thousand. poems, and poems, becoming the most prolific of the self-myh mediocre rhymer in the history of Chinese literature. Until now, a mystery, as bogdohan could write them one, if 'created' just after lunch, besides a lot of reading, drawing, studied calligraphy, oblavnoy hunting and loved to travel. Perhaps he was assisted by someone? But then why in his co-authors, he chose the same mediocre writers, how was he? Like Xuan, Hongli patronized artists, whom many worked at the court. Among them were the European missionaries who set up pavilions, buildings, parks and fountains in the Italian style. That's when Qianlong summer residence of Perfect Splendor gained a complete and luxurious look. Bogdohan himself drew mediocre paintings in the traditional do-hee and studied calligraphy. Biggest philanthropist in the country, he assembled a huge collection of paintings and calligraphy. Emperor fond of music and theater, encourage the arts of porcelain, cloisonne, carved jade and ivory.
Following all the example of his grandfather Xuan, Hongli claimed to be a devout humanist Confucians, that has not stopped him when alone, suppression of the uprising in ethnic Hmong 1735-1736 years to destroy soil-ti half a million people. Mountains of corpses could be a kind of monument to the imperial 'humanity'. The opponents and the rebels were perceived by him as unworthy of existence violators higher installed Sky harmony, the crown of which was Qianlong. Amazing cruelty of the enemy, a passion to punish disobedient extremely painful urge to torture and executions, not just the desire to instill fear and panic - were in the spirit of Qianlong.
Like all oriental despot, he divided people into two categories - for its subjects and to foreigners. With the first he was arrogant, ruthless and taciturn. Exceptions were a 'sign' - the highest class of conquerors, especially the Manchus, whom he took care of in every way. Before foreigners the same - the Europeans and the Asian 'tribute' - Qianlong play the great, . but humble and wise man, . mighty conqueror, . but humane intellectual and an attentive interlocutor, . exemplary Confucian ruler and, moreover, a hospitable, . generous and caring owner,
. Although Qianlong and so lived in a fabulous luxury, his greed knew no bounds. He was ordered to select from the wealth of merchants, courtiers, eunuchs, often very wealthy. Thus, in the tomb of the deceased chief eunuch Son of Heaven, and found a fabulous assigned values, and among them a statue of pure gold. When the rebels sects 'White Lotus' launched an attack that threatened to Beijing, Qianlong had brought their treasures to Manchuria, where they were buried at the bottom of a specially assigned to the side of the river, then water again let the old bed.
. Emulating his grandfather, Hongli has traveled around the country
. Thus, from 1751 to 1784 he made six trips to the province of the Yangtze basin, visited the North China and Manchuria. All these trips Treasury flew into the round penny. Like Xuan, Hongli madly loved hunting and was a good horseman, accurate marksman in general an unusually strong and healthy man. Up to a ripe old age he retained vigor and efficiency. Even two years before his death in 86 years, he went out hunting on horseback. Up until his last hours he read and wrote, as usual. His longevity is largely due to the strict routine of the day, which never changed.
Women do not play a special role in the life of Qianlong, although in his youth he was very fond of his first wife - the Empress Hsiao-Hsien (Mishan). After her death, he made his wife Ula Nara, but after 15 years of marriage, she suddenly dared to contradict him. Then Qianlong her vows as a nun and declared insane. Harem Qianlong consisted of three principal concubines, nine concubines of the second rank, twenty-seven - eighty-third and one - the fourth rank, not counting the many maids of honor and attendants. In short, the choice for bogdohana was wide. Children born from him many, but until adolescence survived only 17 sons and 10 daughters. In the four years before the death of Qianlong officially announced the transfer of power to his son and heir Yunyanyu and soon elevated him to the throne. The era of Jiaqing (Beautiful and Joyful reign, 1796-1820), but the Qianlong era continued within the palace to the end of Qianlong, whose now termed the Supreme Emperor (Huang Tayshan). Father continued to 'teach' son how to conduct affairs of state until his death. Heshen retained its power 'shadow monarch' and preparing a decree on behalf of the Supreme Emperor. In 70 years of Qianlong took his nickname 'Son of Heaven, whose rarely seen since ancient times' (Geese Tientsin). With all the external pomp Qianlong era the country was then, as it were at a historic turning point. The first third of the Qianlong reign has occurred in the general rise of the empire, . middle of the reign - at the top of its power, . but in recent years - is already slipping into another crisis of Chinese feudalism, . grim harbinger of which was the Peasant War 'White Lotus'.,