Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin( Artist)
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Biography Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin
. There is nothing more than ordinary, . than the plot Chardin, . and do not need to know the history, . literature, . mythology, . to understand, . is talking about the artist: the most ordinary life is not too rich, . but not the poor house, . about classes mistress, . children's games and, . course, . about, . that the family on the table - meat, . pie, . fish, . Fruits, . purchased at the nearest market,
. It is important to not that, but as it is written: Chardin - one of the best masters of still life in the history of painting. But, most importantly, of course, someone painted these pictures.
In life, Chardin's not bright and outstanding events. This is the most wonderful and mysterious in her. It's not so easy to understand why he wanted to live my life this way and not otherwise. And he wanted to: there is nothing accidental in this biography is not, it is visible to the conscious will.
Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin was born, when the reign of Louis XIV was setting. Great Empire created, triumphs behind. There comes a century fermentation of minds. Empire are created and destroyed masses elected. But what people are doing simple citizens, from whose environment and went Chardin? For centuries these people diligently and honestly conduct their business, including trade, law. Babies are born, die venerable elders, multiplied by the funds to build houses and whole streets - here everything is measured, without remorse for the past, without the feverish hope, without fear for the future. Aristocracy or a wandering artist a way of life must seem boring and mundane. But the bourgeoisie is able to enjoy it and do not want another. No revolution has not been able to undermine this sredneburzhuazny life. Shardeni would-lo destined to become a poet.
Nothing else was not lured, but there was something to be seduced. Students of the painter was 16 years old when the old king died, and came years of the Regency. Instincts 'sweet life' and the stunningly candid corruption break free. Enrichment, tricks and scandals fill the days of Parisian society. The French capital became the capital of taste, the cape-and whether the fashion, as well as business operations, unbridled fun and amorous adventures. City Mercury young and the young Eros! Chardin all this, however, did not attract. He diligently studying painting and does not shun the blackest of what befalls apprentice. He was not only industrious, but also a master of his fate. When it comes to the conclusion that his teacher - one of dozens of ordinary artisans hand - nothing more can not give him a 20-year-old makes the point strongly in the classroom with him and looking for another coach.
He's quiet and calm, confident, do not trust the edges, not striving for quick success.
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JB Chardin. 'Copper Tank'. Around 1733
A few years later fellow artists recognize his great master. Twenty-nine years, having written several large still lifes with a fare in the 'Flemish' style, Chardin was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Painting. Modest citizen rose rapidly and very high: Academy of painting - this is no longer any merchant or notary, a conspicuous figure in an educated society. This society shaft fells in effect since 1737 Sa-Lon, which demonstrates the results of the efforts of artists for the entire year. New paintings are discussed as quickened, Leno and passionate, as well as new items of literature and theater. Yes, and how not to worry: is filled with fresh air and the trends are already doing their job first explosive works of Voltaire and Diderot. The world is divided into two. Some captured ideas of rationalism, materialism, and social justice, and thus expose all the wrongs of the monarchy and the church. The powers are not yet very afraid - but it should have, because the balance of power changes do not persist in their favor.
Where to look for in these troubled years of the young academician of painting? Not in secret meetings, no discussion in the cafe, not in clandestine printing plants, where supposed to be a man walking in step with the times. Chardin - at home. Now he has se-Mya: He was perfect from the father and the owner. Above all, he was busy with his paintings. While enlightened people speculate and argue about, . that the essence of freedom and justice, . What about religion and how much you can tolerate a useless nobility, . he ponders, . how to write a jug, . starched tablecloth, . piece of meat or cooking water tank,
Who is he? Gifted talent of the painter man in the street, perhaps? He closed little world at home at a time, it would seem the least suitable for. For 40 years, Voltaire and Diderot had no time to surprise the world (as well as to visit in connection with the remand, in prison and in exile). Jean-Jacques Rousseau at this age traveled on foot and walked a few European countries and saw more than many generations Shardenov kind together. Young people dare - and without regret gave Chardin months and years, studying the infinitely patient and faithful eye washing clothes, children playing, cooking utensils and battered game, which they bought for the holiday table. Like him and Education overweening. We're not on such a stubborn standing patriarchal Vendee, drop a half-century revolutionary challenge to Paris?
. 1748 gives an enlightened humanity treatise Montesquieu, 'The Spirit of Laws', where you fearless questions about the legality of the single rule of kings, the permissibility of class privileges
. A year later, can already read the 'natural history' Buffon. It follows from this that nature and man have evolved naturally, by the laws of matter, no higher power, no 'sky' in the life of the universe is not involved. Kept it Chardin in the hands of dangerous books which are read-educated society? If held, then, without any consequences for his art.
. First, . that comes to mind, . - Is called Chardin 'conservative', . and if anyone is offended by the word seems, . we can say 'admirer of the eternal values', . for family life and certainly more immutable, . than ideological and political winds of time,
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Chardin and his era - is the main problem. Perhaps the artist did not want to know about the passions and the slogans of the Enlightenment? On the other hand, not in any other age he would not order an artist who is known to us today.
And the old, 'Versailles', time, and later the revolution, Napoleon and the capitalist boom of the XIX century - all this is not for him. Perhaps even Shardeni lucky: he was to be born in the early period of the Enlightenment, when the 'smile of reason', the preaching of truth and simplicity had not yet caused a storm of violence. Educating young start and first half of XVIII century to discover 'natural rights' with his natural rights, . needs, . relations - but it was still a long way to embittered thoughts about, . that for the sake of 'common man' is not bad to destroy harmful minority of society (the idea, . which always leads to opposite results, . if it attempted to apply in practice),
Human life is exempt from the harsh judgments and restrictions imposed by the estates outside, beliefs and the cult of the State. The joy of life and enjoyment of the natural benefits - that's what attracts first thoughts of artists. The new attitude of the young Enlightenment took different forms in art, literature and philosophy. Appears hedonistic (purpose of life - fun) art of the Rococo, with its sensationalist stories, elegance and charming toy. Then comes a golden time for Francois Boucher, the master of fine erotic paintings. Education rehabilitate the joy of life, and in his own way the same says the Marquis de Sade, the theorist most extreme pleasures of the flesh, turning into ecstasy 'sadism'.
In essence, all cultural France at that time occupied by the idea that 'natural man' has the full right to all that it is calling its nature. However, everyone realized this idea in his. There was a Chardin clear and precise position. He inherited from the classical era Poussin and Racine's idea of duty and discipline. Heroes Chardin, their living environment - it does not attempt to prove that 'everything is permitted'. The very ability of Chardin very carefully looking at the object, in the glare on the glass or peel a peach recalls the responsibility of man before the eternal truths'.
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In an era of universal hobbies ideas of revolution and reform a man, remain committed to the old system (such as Chardin), is in the position of the rebellious, independent mind. High Society, the color of France fraternizing with the educators. Kings, their favorite, prelates of the church - and they reckon with the fact that said Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot. The old regime seemed ashamed of itself and from this powder oneself and flush slogans daring new generation. At this time Chardin is ... royal officials! Since 1755 he - Treasurer of the Academy. It was hard to find a more suitable candidate for this position, rather than punctual, conscientious Chardin, surrounded by the trust and affection of all who knew him.
However, he did not present an official. The bureaucratic machine worked by itself, but it is only the number with her. The question is, what interested him as an artist. We do not find in his art a new, power-hungry ideology of 'freedom, equality and fraternity', but the concept of yesterday - about chivalry, the feudal honor, absolutist state - alien to him. Since the 1750's Chardin - by a large number of its most chamber, laconic still lifes, where few things are arranged very simply.
However, the situation requires, and he even receives a royal order. On the seventh decade of writes still lives with the attributes of Arts for royal castles Choisy and Bellevue. Imperial Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg would also like to decorate, with the approval of Catherine II, its new building with paintings by French artist. So there is 'Still Life with Attributes of the Arts' (1766), who is now in the Hermitage.
We should not think that biography of Chardin's all smooth and successful. The first blow of fate grasped the artist in 1735, when she died, after a few years of marriage, his first wife. He married again - and quite successfully. In 1767 (Shardeni was already 68 years old), his son Pierre Jean, restless and prone to adventure a man goes to wander through Europe and is missing in Italy. But the personal tragedy is not allowed in the career of the master in the same way as the political passions and immediate interests. In the 60-s of XVIII century old art of the artist reaches a particular depth and focus. These are the famous masterpieces from the Louvre 'Brioche', 'Still Life with a pipe' and other.
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The sixties of the century - is a flowering of the Enlightenment and the triumph of art Chardin. France keen on the ideas of Rousseau. His novels 'New Eloise' and 'Emile' sang the praises of the simple joys of life, natural relations, family attachment. Artists, architects, musicians flock to the path indicated writer. Fabrics Jean Baptiste Greuze look nearly as enlarged illustrations of the sensitive scenes of the novels of Rousseau.
Chardin unlikely discovered something new in Rousseauism. He'd spent his life humbly and with great skill of writing is the natural human and natural living environment, where everything is simple, safe, forever, and no lie 'high society' is not valid. Chardin was, so to speak, russoistom before Rousseau - moreover, differ from the benefits of his followers in painting and literature that tolerated no moralizing, no tearful sensitivity, no sweetly in show 'Simple Life'. However, for this reason that other, seemingly more spectacular works were celebrated far louder and rewarded where richer than the masterpieces of Chardin. He did not become a 'hero of the day', as Greuze, but remained in the history of art more significant phenomenon than fashionable artists.
But the golden sixties left, came the seventies - tense, illuminated by the reflection of the bloody future of the revolutionary fire. Already working with a brush, Jacques-Louis David, painter of the Jacobins and Napoleon. Everything was sharper and more dangerous. No one hitherto not known to the German Goethe publishes 'The Sorrows of Young Werther' - a book that stirred to tears by the Germans, Frenchmen, Italians, British. It was no longer an idyll in the spirit of Rousseau, and romantic protest against the miserable situation of the common man in a caste society. Natural human happiness is not achievable - says the book of Goethe. Werther kill myself.
But you can not yourself ... The following year, 1775, Paris admired audacious play of Beaumarchais 'The Barber of Seville'. Will be everything from a simple man! - Like answered Figaro complaints Werther. Let's achieve her! Energy and sharpness plebeians did not hold. Their philosophy is uncomplicated. But the pressure is strong.
This is not the time Chardin. He had been alone with a. He is old and weak, all seen worse, and it is difficult to work with oil paints. He begins to write pastel - colored chalks. It was written in crayons famous, inimitable mastery of the last self-portraits and portraits of the old artist, these masterpieces of the French school. Contemporaries was not until this quiet and lonely man. His financial situation deteriorated. The last hours of dying was painful, but he found no weakness in front of people in the household. He survived for one year, Voltaire and Rousseau, and did not live ten years before the French Revolution, which changed the world.