Sheremet Boris( General-Field Marshal (1701), Earl (1706), a companion of Peter I)
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Biography Sheremet Boris
Throughout his life Sheremetev, as his ancestors had served the emperor. Descendant of a noble boyar family, he was seven years old was already enrolled in the room steward of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, and then fought against the Tatars on the southern borders of the country. He achieved success as a diplomat, but it is the military service was important for him.
Notable success he has achieved already under Peter I, in 1695, when the commander of troops advancing on the Turkish possessions along the Dnieper and the Dniester. And then in 1697 went to the lord Sheremetev long official trip through Poland, Venice and Rome to Malta, where he was the winner of 'infidels,' honored Knights of Malta, and even fired in the cavalry of his order. Travel lasted one and a half years and very much taught Sheremetev. How to write a Swedish prisoner Lili Erenmalm, Sheremet - 'a large, somewhat stout, with a pale face and blue eyes, wears a blond wig and, as in clothing and in vehicles, it is the same as any officer of a foreign. Perfect in his youth traveling to Italy (Erenmalm not know what Sheremetev was then 45 years. - Authors.) Contributed greatly to the acquisition of a pleasant manners'. When did Peter change, new customs, manners, clothes were not boyar Sheremetev to wonder, did not cause his sudden rejection - already abroad, he wore European dress and shaved.
Sheremetev stood out among the other dignitaries of Peter's noble, quiet behavior, courtesy and politeness. It noted, all foreigners who saw Sheremetev negotiations and receptions. When after the burial of pet Peter Lefort in 1699, nobles eagerly rushed to the table with a banqueting dishes, only one person thought it below their dignity to indulge along with all the gluttony - it was the lord Sheremetev. Peter saw it and could not assess. We know that, and then the king did not allow for Sheremetev normal for him liberties, and 'Cup Big Eagle' giant 'penalty' glass, which Peter would often 'rewarded' her guests, always raced past Marshal.
Sheremetev, despite its popularity in the army and society, was not an outstanding politician or military leader. His letters indicate the individual is quite commonplace, not bright, without imagination and emotional ups, without the agonizing spiritual quest. Thus spoke about himself and himself Sheremetev in one of his letters: 'Do not ispytliv spirit I have'. But his steadiness and calmness inspire people to firm hope of a successful outcome of any business, which was led Sheremetev. Perhaps this is to a large extent influenced the decision of Peter, after devastating for the Russian army began the Northern War in 1700 to appoint a commander in the rank Sheremeteva General Field Marshal. Amid commanders capitulated to Charles XII of regiments he looked good: led out of the Narva subordinate cavalry unit with banners.
. And since then, he fought and fought: first in Estonia and Livonia, ruining these rich province of Sweden and oderzhivaya first, so inspiring victory over the Swedes, then took Mitau - the capital of Kurzeme (western Latvia)
. In the Battle of Poltava in 1709 it was he who gave the king control the army, which appeared on the battlefield in full view of the advancing Swedes, in 1710 he received the gold keys from Riga, after a long siege by Russian troops. And then there were the tragic Prutskaya campaign in 1711, the fighting in Poland, Pomerania (Poland's Baltic coast), in germanskom Duchy of Mecklenburg. In 1705 Sheremetev ruthlessly suppressed the revolt Astrakhan, for which he received the 2400 peasant households.
However, few people knew how tormented majestic Sheremetev this normal for the king's subjects, steep reformer fear. Down by a huge responsibility for the army, he was handed, Sheremetev years of the Great Northern War did not know the rest. By nature he was a steady and unhurried, Peter, on the contrary, - impulsive and impetuous. Often, the king demanded Sheremeteva speed, was dissatisfied with his slow. Some letters to Peter Sheremetev full of suggestions and prodding: "Kindly do not procrastinate ... Enough excuses, it's time to do ... Do, do, do! More I will not write, but his head will pay, if again interpret the decree will become '.
Nevertheless, the king was in no hurry to send Sheremetev resigned: the authority of the generals he had no equal, he held the highest post in the army according to seniority and merit. Moreover, Peter knew that the responsible Sheremetev will not risk, do not succumb, like Menshikov, on adventures. It Sheremetev, . at the time of onset of dangerous Swedes in Poland in the years 1706-1708 considered, . we should not seek a general engagement with them, . but should slowly retreat in Russia, . 'try little by little they obezsilivat deprivation of all means to get in the way rations and fodder',
. This 'heroic way', but a rational tactic was adopted by Peter and fully justified.
We Sheremeteva was hard, exhausting life. He feared not only for the army, but also for himself. Boyarin has never been close to the king, he tried to avoid politics in his youth did not support any Naryshkins nor Miloslavskys and moved to the side of Peter's in 1689 already with all the other dignitaries. Subsequently, he made no secret of sympathy for the Tsarevich Alexei, the tragic fate which has poisoned the last months of life Sheremetev and hastened his end. Peter, using the skills and experience Boyar Field Marshal, at the same time obviously did not trust him, kept away at a distance. So Sheremetev constantly afraid something did not please the king, his anger, lose favor, awards and praise. Alarmed, he inquired in a letter to Secretary Peter: 'Is there not me vyaschego wrath of His Majesty? ". Even the already mortally ill, he feared, as if the king did not suspect him of a simulation, and asked him inspect the disease. Finally, its loneliness weighed on. His closest friend, General-Admiral FA Apraxin he wrote: 'To my mortal sickness and sorrow mene eats that you, sir, cronies friend and benefactor, and his brother left and upomyanitisya my writing sister ...'
. Sheremetev died in Moscow
. In his will he asked to bring him to the ground in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, or as re-shield the emperor. Emperor decided otherwise: even the last wishes of people for him meant nothing. He was ordered to transport the body Sheremeteva in St. Petersburg and his burial necropolis of the nobles of the dead begin at the Alexander Nevsky monastery, which was done. Even the death of the old field marshal, as he lived in perpetual awe life, was subject to public purposes.