SHERIDAN, Richard Brinell( Austrian writer)
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Biography SHERIDAN, Richard Brinell
Richard Brinsley Sheridan came from a very famous family. His grandfather, a doctor of theology, Thomas Sheridan, was a friend of Swift, and quite unpleasant - he did not shy about expressing the celebrated Dublin dean of the most bitter truth about his quarrelsome nature. In his estate, by the way, were created 'Fiz-ma draper' and 'Gulliver's Travels'. A son of Thomas Sheridan - also Thomas - went to the actors. He became famous for starring in the execution klassitsistskoy Joseph Addison's tragedy of 'Cato' and has been for some time director of the Royal Theater in Dublin, . ruined by a riot of spectators, . moved to London and taught there oratory,
. He also released a pronouncing dictionary, . that angered his opponent - a writer and lexicographer - Samuel Johnson: 'How dare this Irishman teach us the proper pronunciation! " Wife of Thomas Francis, Jr. wrote in imitation of 'Pamela' Richardson 'Memoirs of Miss Sidney Bidalf', . which caused the warm approval of the famous writer and had even been translated into French by the Abbe Prevost,
. Roman Mrs Sheridan was staged and was in Paris that inspired her to write for the theater. One of the pieces failed, the other - 'Discovery' - was successfully staged in the theater Dryuri Lane Garrick, a frequent visitor Sheridan.
It is easy to understand that Richard Brinsley entered the theater and the literary world as in its own. He graduated from the aristocratic school of Harrow, but in Oxford boy for lack of funds did not send. True, its all these University of wisdom and not drawn. He was cheerful, witty and irresistibly charming. Besides literary things went bad. In collaboration with his high school friend Nathaniel Holhedom, . later known Orientalist, . he translated a book of Greek poetry, . written comedy 'Ixion and Amphitryon', . as well as a number of essays, . part of which was published in the fashionable resort of Bath, . where they lived while Sheridan,
. Richard identified in the London law school, . but a lot of time spent in Bath and there saw the eldest of the nine daughters of the composer Thomas Linley, Elizabeth Ann, . amazing beauty and znamentoe soprano, . which one bishop described as "a bridge between mortals and angels',
. She was then 16-Year. Richard was all-go for three years more. They are madly in love with each other, fled to France, married in the Catholic rite, and remained there until he left the money. Came to the rescue of their relatives back home and pretended that no marriage was.
Short time has expired, and Richard Brinsley had heard all of England. January 17, 1775 at Covent Garden was set and suffered a grand failure of his comedy 'Rivals'. But Sheridan did not give. While the public raged, he sat quietly and observed the shortcomings of his play. And then ten days rewrote it so that it is all delighted. Sheridan, 22, became recognized as a playwright, proving that the world had one more representative of 'comedies'. May 2 was successfully placed two-act farce 'St. Patrick's Day, or enterprising lieutenant', and on 21 November the same year - a comic opera 'Duenna'. The play was a row 75 times - a figure unprecedented for the British theater XVIII century. Song from 'Duenna' (music written Linley) sung throughout the country.
Family matters also straightened. After the duel with Richard one of the many fans of Elizabeth, almost had cost him his life, the parents relented, and the lovers got married again, this time for the Anglican rite. Elizabeth - at the height of his fame, earning huge money, but the jealous Richard forbids her to speak. In late 1775, he himself is a celebrity. Just three plays, but he - friend of Charles James Fox, the leftmost of the leading British politicians, in his honor to write poetry, his name is on everyone's lips, he is accepted into an elite literary club, which consists of Garrick, Gibbon, Reynolds, Johnson. Soon, Sheridan became the master of the theater Dryuri Lane, purchased the first unit at the Garrick, and in 1780, and the rest co-owners, for which he had to get into debt, do not leave it until the end of the day. However, he has always lived beyond their means.
In this theater, and was delivered May 8, 1777 comedy, which became the central event of the theatrical life of London throughout the last third of the XVIII century - 'School for Scandal'.
This play - one of the world tops the comedy of manners. Libel was perhaps the main defect is not rich in the virtues of English XVIII century. So the 'Academy of cursing', depicted in the play by Sheridan, written from life. But the most important achievement of the author was another conflict of this comedy.
Playwrights foggy Albion has long tried to draw a 'British Tartuffe'. Did this one Sheridan. His Joseph Serfes continuously delivers highly moral speech, which directly contradict his actions. First of all, he tries to seduce a young wife of his uncle Sir Tizla. Unable to him that just because the lady Tizl, carried away by the mores of the London world, nevertheless retained traces of the Provincial patriarchal. Here Sheridan successfully parodied the situation depicted by playwright William Wycherley's comedy 'The village wife' (1675). The culmination of one of the traditions of English drama and history was the rivalry of two brothers (the story developed later and Schiller in 'The Robbers'). Charles Serfes, ILO and the idler, is a good man, and Joseph - a villain. Ascertain the truth had come from India uncle Oliver - paradoxically drawn image of the favorite at the time arguer.
It may be noted that Sheridan, who seemed to obediently followed the canons of the comedy of that time, in fact, they updated. The success of the audience was extraordinary. Explosions of laughter shook the walls of the theater so that they seemed about to collapse. Very pleased and comedy-rehearsal 'Critic' (30 October 1779). But this was over the original dramatic works Sheridan. You can mention more comedy 'Trip to Scarborough' (1777), . but it was just a remake, . albeit clever, . play the English playwright end of XVII - beginning of XVIII century, John Vanbru 'Incorrigible, . or Virtue in Danger ', . and play 'Pizarro' (1799), . created in explanation of melodrama by the German dramatist August Kotzebue 'Spaniards in Peru' (1797),
. He walked with his pen, and other plays, delivered in Dryuri Lane.
Sheridan has won world recognition in just four years. The remaining 30 years were given to political activities. Along with Fox, he published a newspaper 'The Limey', which advocated the independence of the North American colonies. In September 1780 Sheridan was elected to parliament from the Whig party, and soon he was promoted to Deputy Minister. Member of the House of Commons he remained for 26 years, gained fame as an orator. The most famous of his speeches were directed against the Governor-General of India Warren Hastings, not so much a rule as mercilessly plundered the country on behalf of the British East India Company. Legislative hearings began on Feb. 7, 1787, and even the defendant's counsel could not admit it Sheridan's remarkable, and three hours later he exclaimed: 'Of all the monsters of iniquity Warren Hastings - the worst'. Sheridan's speech at the trial lasted four days. Once he almost lost consciousness and asked for a break, and after the concert fell into a swoon. The famous actress Sarah Siddons, listening to Sheridan, fainted; get into the courtroom was almost impossible, even though tickets cost from бё 50. However, a process that lasted seven years, ended in acquittal. All of his fortune he gave to the treasury. Subsequently remembered just how India was a connoisseur of Hastings, much effort he has made to unite the country, as he was good friends. Sheridan even tried once to reconcile with the Hastings.
His own affairs in the meantime went from bad to worse, although the authority has remained very high. It was said that Napoleon, not to hear detailed reports on the situation in England, asking simply: what he said about Sheridan? Himself the owner of big names was then in the heavily in debt. In 1792, he lost his wife, to which behaved not perfect, and made friends with the Prince Regent - not paragons of virtue - had begun to ruin oneself by drink. New marriage brought him solace. He indulges whims of the innumerable wives. Besides loving Sheridan becomes the victim of blackmail. Theater - on the verge of bankruptcy. Construction of new building instead of worn too expensive. The fire completely destroyed the theater Sheridan. He lived out his days in poverty, refusing, as always, take any help from the powers that be, and the loss of seats in parliament was under constant threat of debtors' prison. He was buried instead in the 'Poets Corner' of Westminster Abbey.