EULER Leonhard( Mathematics)
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Biography EULER Leonhard
He were subject to mathematical science, technology problems, logic, philosophy. But above all he was a mathematician. Euler saw profound mutual influence of all branches of mathematics, he expanded the scope of this science, has created new and systematized the existing research areas. Because of this amazing source of ideas and continue to draw these days. Life Euler, is inextricably linked with Russia, where he began his academic career, where he died and was buried, can be divided into four periods: Basel, St. Petersburg, Berlin and St. Petersburg the second.
Basel period. Leonhard Euler was born in the Swiss city of Basle, spent his childhood in his suburb Riene, where the arrival of the father - Pastor Paul Euler. He gave his son the first lessons in mathematics. Then he started school, . as early as 13 years, Leonard entered the University of Basel, . that at the request of his father to study theology, . but carried away in mathematics, . attended lectures of the famous professor Johann Bernoulli, and I went to see him on Saturdays to find out the questions that interested him,
. The young man tried to ask how you can lower yourself to overcome difficulties. Later, he claimed that this method of training - the best for those who want to succeed in mathematics.
In 1723 he became a master of philosophy, but to get a job in Basel, he was unable. Soon, Euler received an invitation from the president of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences to take the post of associate (assistant), Daniel Bernoulli, the academician, who recommended the candidacy of a young scientist.
Petersburg period. In May 1727 Euler arrived in the capital of Russia. In 1731 he won the vacated seat of academician in physics, but after the departure of Daniel Bernoulli in Basel in 1733, became an academician in mathematics. Later, Euler wrote: "I and all the rest, had the good fortune to serve in Russia's Imperial Academy, must recognize that all of what we are, we owe it to the favorable conditions in which there were. For what concerns me personally, do not be this happy event, I would be compelled to devote themselves to some other occupation, which, in all likelihood, would only bunglers. When his Royal Highness (the Prussian King Frederick II. - Authors.) Recently asked me where I learned what I know, I responded in accordance with the truth that all owed to his stay in St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences'. Academy in the early years of its existence, surrounded by foreign scholars who came here with care and attention. Freedom of scientific creativity, good material conditions, the importance of tasks open to 20-year Euler broad prospects. Moreover, academics have unlimited opportunities to publish their works and to liaise with scientists from different countries, with postage paid for the Academy. Euler corresponded with Johann and Daniel Bernoulli, with many mathematics and astronomy, obtaining scientific information 'first hand', sharing with colleagues ideas and discoveries.
The St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences was formed team of talented scientists, keen on mathematics, mechanics, astronomy, cartography, physics, physiology. Along with the already well-known mathematician and engineer Swiss J. Herman, . founder and first director of academic Observatory Frenchman Jean N. Delisle, . Conference Secretary, . highly educated Germans H. Goldbach, . worked here very young GV Kraft, . FH Meyer, . IG Gmelin, . came from Germany,
. They spoke with scientific presentations at meetings of the Conference (so-called general meeting of the Academy), participated in discussions, teach the few students who, under the leadership of these scientists perform all sorts of practical tasks. The Academy immediately appreciated the mathematical talent of Euler. Academic journal 'Comments', starting with the second volume ever printed his articles, sometimes filled almost all the mathematical section.
In 1734, Euler Gzell married to Catherine, the daughter of an academic painter Georg Gzellya. They had 13 children, of whom eight died in childhood
. Being a mathematician by vocation, . Euler worked successfully in the field of astronomy, . Cartography, . mechanics and in 1736 published a book 'Mechanics, . or the science of motion, . described analytically ', . which outlined the means of Newtonian mechanics point of the infinitesimal calculus,
. The book immediately won praise I. Bernoulli, is not inclined to express approval of the other authors. In 1739 published 'The experience of the new theory of music', which Euler considered as one of the branches of mathematics.
Introducing Goldbach, a talented mathematician, an amateur, has awakened interest in Euler to the theory of numbers, preserved for life. In the first of the articles on this subject Euler pointed out a mistake made famous Fermat.
Euler was a student of J. Bernoulli, a follower of Leibniz, but still a student was carried away to I. Newton, and later in St. Petersburg, deeply studied his theory fluxions. Studies Euler combine the ideas of Leibniz and Newton, relating to the calculation of infinite ma-lyh. Euler used it to present different sciences: mechanics, celestial mechanics, calculus of variations. The first Petersburg period Euler planned to begin a systematic exposition of mathematics, beginning with arithmetic. Then issued a trilogy, which covered the introduction and analysis of infinitesimals, differential and integral calculus. Separately published his "Universal arithmetic ', the second part of which he devoted to the theory of indeterminate equations (" diophantine analysis'); French translation of the book came out in Lyon Securities 'Supplements' Lagrange.
In early 1740-ies the situation in the Academy has changed for the worse. After the death of Empress Anna Ioannovna there was time to political instability. academy was left without the president, some members left Russia. Euler accepted an invitation from the Prussian King Frederick II, the wish to revive the Berlin Scientific Society (founded in 1700). In June 1741 Euler and his family went to Berlin. Arriving in St. Petersburg obscure young man, he went out in 14 years a renowned scholar.
Berlin period. In 1744-1746 years of the Berlin Scientific Society has been transformed into the Berlin Academy of Sciences and Letters, where about half of the seats occupied by immigrants from Switzerland and France. President was PL Maupertuis, a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, who has been trained as Euler in Basel at the Johann Bernoulli. Euler was appointed director of the Academy math class.
He is a frequent speaker at meetings of the Academy, and published articles in her 'Notes'. Posted in private publishing several books, including 'theory of motion of the planets and comets' (1744). He was engaged in rehabilitation and equipment of the observatory, ran errands King: A designed the Water Palace in Potsdam, did the calculations for lotteries, etc.. During the frequent absences of President of the Academy of Euler performed his duties, but after the death of Maupertuis in 1759 was appointed to the vacant seat was. Relations with the king took shape not in the best way. Frederick II disdainfully treated mathematics, recognizing only its practical use, besides he likes gallant French.
Being an honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy, Euler very actively collaborated with it: continuously send their essays, to continue to be filled almost the entire mathematical section 'Comments'. At the St. Petersburg Academy of funds or in its printer, he published several monographs, including 'marine science'. Of the 300 works, produced in Berlin, about half came out in Moscow. Two Academy barely had time to publish the fruits of his fantastic performance. Euler remained the chief arbiter of the St. Petersburg Academy of Physical and mathematical questions, suggested topics for the competitions, write reviews of the works sent. He supported the first printed works M.V. University, whom he considered a great scholar. In the house of Euler students lived in Berlin from Russia M. Sofronov, S. Kotelnikov, S. Rumovsky, the latter later became an academician.
In 1766 at the invitation of Catherine II Euler and his family returned to St. Petersburg, where his academic position in mathematics remained free.
The second Petersburg period. Empress gave Euler funds to buy a house (now the Lieutenant Schmidt Embankment, 15, corner of 10 th line). The eldest of his sons, Johann Albrecht became an academician in physics, . and later - the conference secretary, Charles took a high position in the medical office, Christopher, . born in Berlin, . Frederick II for a long time did not release from military service, . and it took the intervention of Catherine II, . so that he could come to his father,
. Christopher was appointed director Sestroretsk armorer
. In 1738 Euler went blind in one eye, . in 1771-meters after the operation almost lost his eyesight and could only write with chalk on a blackboard, . but thanks to the students and assistants: IA Euler, . AI Lokselyu, . VL Kraft, . SK Kotelnikov, . ME Golovin, . and most importantly, NI Fuss, . arrived from Basel, . continued to work no less intensively, . sooner,
. Over the past 17 years, presented the Academy more than 500 works, half of which was published with it, and the rest - within 80 years after his death. Among the major works: 'Integral Calculus "(1768-1770),' Dioptrics' (1769-1771), 'Letters to a German princess of the different physical and philosophical mother' (1768-1772) - each of the works in three volumes. Several years Euler was a member of the Commission for the Management Academy, participated in technical expertise, for example, the project odnoarochnogo wooden bridge across the Neva, the proposed mechanic п?.п?. Kulibin, wrote training manuals. Euler proved the possibility of producing achromatic (devoid of distortions, in which the image is painted on the edges) of optical devices, proposed to use for this system of lenses of different refractive power. The theory has been tested in practice, English optician Dollondom and Kulibin, produced achromatic microscope.
In 1773, Euler's wife died, with whom he lived for 40 years. Three years later he married her sister, Salome Gzell. Enviable health and happy nature helped Euler 'to resist the blows of fate that fell to his share ... Always smooth mood, . soft and natural cheerfulness, . some ext-rodushnaya sarcasm, . ability naive and amusing talk did talk with him just as enjoyable, . as it is welcome ... ' He would sometimes fly out, . but 'was not able to feed a long time against any anger ...' - Recalled NI Fuss,
Euler's constantly surrounded by numerous grandchildren, often at the py-tuples from him sat a child, and the neck lay a cat. He worked with children in mathematics. And all this does not prevent him from working!
. Euler received 12 awards of the Paris Academy of Sciences, . was a foreign member of the Paris and Berlin (after the departure to Russia) Academy of Sciences, . Royal Society of London, . Bavarian Academy of Sciences, . American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, . other academies and scientific societies,
. During his stay in Berlin, he remained a foreign honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
In the last year of life Euler was the president of the Academy Princess E.R. Dashkova, highly respected scientist and who saw in it the main ornament of the institution. Eiler died of a stroke and was buried at the Smolensk Lutheran Cemetery. The Academy commissioned the famous sculptor D. Rashettu, well acquainted with Euler, a marble bust of the deceased, but the princess gave Dashkova marble pedestal. 'Eulogy' Euler prepared and delivered NI Fuss. Autumn 1956 in connection with the 250 anniversary of the birth of Euler's ashes and a monument raised by the Academy in 1837, were moved to the Necropolis of Alexander Nevsky Lavra
. Until the end of XVIII century, Conference Secretary of the Academy remained IA Euler, . which was replaced NI Fuss, . married a daughter of the last, . and in 1826 - the son Fuss Pavel, . so that the organizational side of the life of the Academy about a hundred years were in charge of the descendants of Leonhard Euler.,
. The medal, embossed in honor of Euler
. Modern textbooks of mathematics, mechanics, astronomy, contain numerous references to it have arisen either: Euler angles, substitution, functions, integrals, equations, theorems, Euler's constant, and pr
. Range of scientific interests was extremely wide Euler. In addition to mathematics and mechanics, this is astronomy, cartography, marine science, optics, magnetism, ballistics, the theory of chess, magic squares. In total, he owns about 900 publications, and how many more manuscripts kept in the St. Petersburg branch of Russia Academy of Sciences of the archive!
. In 1911 Switzerland began publishing the complete works of Euler, in the preparation of which was attended by scholars and Russia - AA Markov, AM Lyapunov, VI Smirnov
. So far, it was about 80 volumes. Much has yet to publish.
Proceedings Euler was the starting point of research JL Lagrange, P. S. Laplace, AM Legendre, C. F. Gauss, Dirichlet PG, K. G. J. Jacobi, C. Hermite, P. Chebyshev and many. Chebyshev considered Euler genius mathematician after Newton, . often talked about, . that most of the issues, . currently being developed by mathematicians, . was scheduled Euler, . and happy to note the results, . which were attributed to a later mathematicians, . but in fact belonged to Euler,
Euler traditionally had a strong influence on students Chebyshev: Lyapunov, AN Korkina, Zolotarev, Markov and others, defining the main features of the St. Petersburg mathematical school.
'Such were the works g.Eylera, such is his right to immortality. His name can only perish with the science itself ', - said the NI Fuss in connection with the death of the great scientist.