YM David( English philosopher, historian, economist and journalist)
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Biography YM David
. What was deprived of the throne of Louis XVI during his imprisonment in the Temple, . awaiting trial, . which is very likely (and was actually) had to sentence him to death? He was engaged in his favorite locksmith profession studied the new constitution, . to prepare a defense statement, and even the French translation published in London in 1754-1778 first-eight-DAH 'History of England from its conquest by Julius Caesar to the revolution in 1688',
. Louis is particularly interested in those pages, which involves the trial of Charles I and his execution in 1649. Obviously, he drew an analogy between the fate of his and Charles and I found the author of the book sympathy for the tragedy of King, who was executed by Parliament on behalf of the people.
The author also was David Hume, English (the Scots regard him as their) historian and thinker. We he is known more as a philosopher, the largest in modern times, the representative of skepticism that the cognitive abilities of man has no credibility, and opinion is impossible to distinguish true from false. Hume brought the theoretical skepticism to the extreme, rejecting whatever that may be the fundamental principle of peace, or, as they said, the substance, not just the material (this is not long before he did, for example, Dzh.Berkli), but also spiritual.
David Hume was born in Edinburgh, there and died. He was the younger of two sons of a poor landowner. His father died early, but David's mother managed to give him a good education. He studied classical languages and law at the University of Edinburgh, . then tried his hand at commerce (unsuccessfully), . in the years 1734-1737 completed education in France at the famous college Laflesh, . the very, . where for more than a century before studying Descartes,
. It is interesting that both the pupil of the Jesuits were the main exponents of the principle of doubt in the new philosophy. Only it was Descartes' methodological doubt, overcoming them with ideas and I am God, and led to the founding of the new metaphysics, and in many respects the new science, Hume also sent his doubt as to these ideas, trying to destroy all metaphysics. Here's how he concludes his' Study of human knowledge '(1748):' ... proceed to the inspection of libraries. What kind of devastation we'll have to make them! Take, for example, in the hands of some book on theology or school metaphysics, and ask: Does it contain any abstract reasoning about the quantity or number? No. Does it some based on experience and reasoning about the facts of existence? No. So throw it in the fire, because it can not be nothing but sophistry and delusion! "
. Had removed the optical deceptions of metaphysics, the philosopher can and should develop only 'the geography of the mind', that is, to put in order 'perception', is not trying to look 'for' them
. The term 'perception' (literally 'perception'), Hume refers to all the direct data of experience: external (through the senses) and internal (through introspection, 'reflection'),. Sense of color or sound, memory, experience pain, suffering or joy - all this perception. 'I' or the soul - no more than a 'bundle of perceptions'. These cornerstones of his philosophy came to the conclusions of Hume in the 25 years of age, even in France, and at the same time wrote his first and, together with the main philosophical work 'Treatise of Human Nature' (published in 1739-1740). In general, all proper philosophical works, not counting the popular essays were written by Hume to 40 years, after which he devoted himself to history and education
. Later 'Treatise of Human Nature', . in the already mentioned 'Research on human knowledge', . Hume still allowed, . that at least the mathematical knowledge does not depend on the perceptions and, . example, . geometry is the result of certain operations 'imagination', . with such an imagination, . is not related experiences,
. This doctrine of sverhopytnoy and yet absolutely precise nature of mathematical knowledge, combined with Hume's idea about the origin of the notion of reason as a result of 'habit', and served for. Kant's decisive impetus to the creation of its 'critical philosophy'
. Strikingly early ripe and seemingly contemporaries in many countries, the philosophy of Hume today is recognized as a link in the development of British empiricism (the direction, . which recognizes the sensory experience the only source of knowledge) of Francis Bacon (1561-1626) to the positivists, . who consider only the knowledge of the combined effect of the special sciences, . a study of philosophical problems, . they believe, . do not need,
. Bacon proclaimed the primacy of experience in knowledge, . Dzh.Lokk (1632-1704) recorded two types of experience (internal, . ie introspection, . and external - sensations); Dzh.Berkli (1685-1753) argued, . all perception, . and internal and external, . are the result of the impact on our spiritual substance (God),
. It remained only one step before that and the notion of spiritual substance (as well as the concept of matter) that the giving nothing to the knowledge. Hume made this step, coming to a conclusion about the uselessness of metaphysics. From the standpoint of Hume and his agnosticism - the doctrine that reality is ultimately unknowable, and agree to the positivists of the nineteenth century (Dzh.Mill, Herbert Spencer, and others), and in part of the twentieth century, who consider their spiritual father Hume. However, instead of perceptions, they often talk about 'experimental data', 'elementary events', 'Signs' and aim to develop the logical rules of operating data forgotten or signs. But this goal has been partly foreshadowed in Hume's 'geography of the mind'.
The peculiarity of Hume in the empirical tradition is the extreme consistency with which he shared, the fraction of perception, to prove their complete fragmentation and individuality. They are purely individual, deprived of any kind was the relationship, hence, the world's no real reason. We've learned that one of perception (the event) is often followed by another: for example, a blow to billiard ball - and he flies off to the side. But logically show why such a perception, whether internal or external, should be for the other, we can never. However, the practical life (say, of the same Hume as a diplomat or a historian), this should not interfere agnosticism: we have a lot in life to follow the habit of obeying no reason and feeling. It is desirable that our feelings were good, altruistic, in solidarity with humanity. This 'ethic of benevolence' Hume developed in the last of his major philosophical treatises, in the 'Study on the principles of morality' (1751), which is considered the best of his works. Ethics and theoretical philosophy, Hume - two completely isolated from each other the world. What unites them just habit - the main driving force of everyday life and together with the 'false' representations of the relationship of cause and effect.
Consistency with which Hume defended his paradoxes, and the difficulty of his treatises have contributed to the understanding that his philosophy was not a success. Leaving her, Hume began to search for calling in more practical areas
. In the mid 1740-ies financial difficulties forced him to take up any service: he was a partner with the Mentally Marquise Anendeyle, . then traveled to Italy, . Austria and other European countries in the British military and diplomatic missions by General Saint-Clair, . Finally, in 1752 became librarian of the Edinburgh Bar Association,
. Here access to the riches of the book gave Hume the opportunity to fulfill his long-planned plan - write a 'History of England'.
However, this work was met with public disapproval. The fact that Hume began publishing it with the volume on the history of the house of the Stuarts in the seventeenth century, and in full compliance with his benevolent, full tolerance ethic could not entirely be on one side. Sympathizing Parliament, he did not approve of the massacre in 1640-ies of the Lord Straffordom and Charles I. History Hume regards as a kind of applied psychology, explaining the events of interweaving of individual characters, wills, emotions, and the stability of the course of events gives again the habit. Most emergence of the state - the result of the consolidation of the institution of military leaders, which the people 'get used' to obey. Psychological approach Hume was unusual for the British historiography of the eighteenth century, rarely delve into the emotional and motivational side of events and is limited to party-biased assessment of the facts. The best approach Hume falls in the Scottish tradition of historiography, in which he foreshadowed the later romantic and psychological historicism Walter Scott and other historians and writers. (Incidentally, Hume has always emphasized his membership of the Scottish nation and never sought to get rid of significant Scottish accent). As already mentioned, the first volume of 'History of England' were met by the British public and the ruling in 1750-ies Whig reserved. A role in this also played a skepticism of Hume on religion.
This skepticism, though ostensibly aimed only against the pre-Christian religions, clearly visible in Hume, published in 1757, 'The natural history of religion'. There he comes from the fact that the 'mother of piety - ignorance', and ends with the fact that "people without religion, if such exists, is only slightly above the animals'. 'Doubt, . unreliability, . waiver of any judgment - that, . apparently, . the only result of very careful study of this issue '- with these words end this treatise on the Hume dual, . conservative and at the same time, education, . the role of religion and the clergy in the history of culture,
. This position is hardly typical educational. However, in England, which by then had already become largely Protestant country, an objective approach to the role of Hume Catholics in the events of the seventeenth century aroused suspicion. Hume recited the names of all the major figures of the Catholic and royalist parties, without losing sight of their merits, as well as sins. This was contrary to what has been taken in Whig historiography portraying opponents as solid inert and largely unmarked mass.
. However, with the ascension to the English throne in 1760 King George III and the conservative turn in domestic policy situation has changed
. In 1762, 70-year period of the Whigs over, and Hume with its objective, and sometimes skeptical attitude was perceived as a 'prophet of the counter-revolution' (an expression of one of the later historiographers L. Bondzhi). His humane treatment to those who have been persecuted under Cromwell, was interpreted as protective of the monarchy in general and moderately critical - the attempts of the church (any) to usurp. If at an earlier stage of its activities in every way, Hume emphasized the role of freedom as the supreme and absolute value, . now published in their essays on the history, . morality, . art (Hume - one of the pioneers of the genre of free essay in English literature) are increasingly slipping idea of the importance of legitimacy in comparison even with the freedom and the fact, . it is better to go to the restriction of freedom, . than a deviation from the established order,
. All this gave the works of Hume's role sought a platform for national reconciliation, the liberals and monarchists, the Whigs and Tories. Books Yuma translated into German, French and other European languages, he became the most famous outside England, the British author of the time.
In 1763, Hume received the prestigious post of Secretary of the British Embassy in France. He was warmly greeted by the French encyclopaedists and educators, although for reasons largely opposite to that finally brought the success of his books in England. Voltaire, Helvetius, Holbach embraced the skepticism of Hume as a revolutionary doctrine, as deism (the doctrine of God, created the world and continue to interfere in its affairs), or even atheism. This was untrue, but they hoped to push the Hume in this direction. The most friendly relations established between Hume and ZH.ZH. Rousseau, and Hume, returning to England, invited him to visit. However, on arriving in London and then to the estate of Hume (1766), Rousseau was unable to come to terms with prim, . its taste, . British customs, . Hume began to suspect in arrogance, . in disregard of his writings, . and then (and it was a morbid touchiness) to spy on him in favor of Holbach and others - again, imaginary - its enemies, . in an attempt to kidnap and assign it to the manuscript, and even the desire to keep him against his will in England, a prisoner,
. Hume, . that impresses Freethinking Rousseau, . now frightened away the sharpness of its denial of civilization, . Science, . even art, . his willingness to replace the monarchy (so convenient, . from the standpoint of Hume, . to reach a compromise mezhsoslovnogo) republic in the spirit of the later Jacobin.,
. In 1769, Hume resigned and the remaining years of his life in his native Edinburgh
. There, he became secretary of the local Philosophical Society, and about him gathered a circle of the Enlightenment, of which the most famous economist, Adam Smith and Professor of Moral Philosophy Adam Ferguson. It is believed that Smith's theory of value as an embodiment of a certain amount of labor, and Ferguson - the ethics of altruism and benevolence has been influenced by Hume. French educator Sh.de Bross under the influence of Hume's "Natural History of Religion 'introduced the concept of the fetishism of historical science - the cult of animals or inanimate objects - as being given to all peoples in the establishment of religion. In the development of historical thought, Hume remained one of the first representatives of psychology and yet a critic of the revolutionary path of development, . consider, . that revolutions as a kind of 'mass hysteria' will inevitably give way to the only correct and rectified their mistakes reformist path.,