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ABBAS II

( Hilmi Pasha, the great-grandson of Mohammed Ali, Khedive of Egypt)

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Biography ABBAS II
(1874-1944)

Born July 16, 1874 in Cairo, the Khedive was after the death of his father, Tewfik Pasha, January 7, 1892. He was educated in Lausanne and Vienna, know Turkish, English, French and German. Surrounded by schemers and at first were suspicious of British policy in Egypt, . Abbas fired the pro-British-minded bureaucrats without consultation with the Consul General Cromer, . constantly interfering in the existing system of governance,
. He played for the establishment of local judicial system, tax reform and measures aimed at improving the education and agriculture, encourage the expansion of irrigation works in Aswan. Approved the re-conquest of the Sudan. July 24, 1913 the Constitution was promulgated, which provided for the establishment of the parliament of 81 MPs, of whom 66 were elected and 17 appointed by the Government.

At the outbreak of World War I, the Khedive was visiting the Turkish sultan in Constantinople, recovering from wounds received during an assassination attempt on his life. November 5, 1914 Britain declared war on Turkey. Since Abbas II had returned to Cairo, he was charged with desertion. In addition, he was suspected of plotting. December 18, 1914 Egypt was declared a British protectorate. December 19, Abbas was deposed by the Sultan Hussein Kamel was (ok. 1850-1917), his uncle and the eldest of the descendants of Muhammad Ali. Title Khedive was abolished and replaced by the title of Sultan, in turn, replaced the title of King. When Hussein Kamil died Oct. 5, 1917, his heir was Prince Ahmed Fouad. Rescript of 13 April 1922, after the declaration of independence of Egypt, the former Khedive Abbas II was excluded from the list of heirs to the throne, although this does not invalidate the rights to the throne of his direct descendants through the male line. Abbas II died in Geneva on 20 December 1944.


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