Abhinavagupta( Theorist Kashmir Shaivism)
Comments for Abhinavagupta
lived in the 10-11 centuries., undertook a broad synthesis of Tantric doctrines and practices and created an original aesthetic concept. Abhinavagupta was descended from a Brahmin scholar Atrigupty, whom the king of Kashmir Lalitaditya (8.) 'Ordered' from the North-East India, and was born on tantristskim treatments, resulting in 'sacred' copulation parents
. The early death of his mother Abhinavagupta later praised as a positive circumstance, under the guidance of his father, a Brahmin-Shaivites Narasinhagupta, Abhinavagupta studied philosophy and exegesis, in his address to the cult of Shiva influenced the study of poetics
. Abhinavagupta elected wandering and had lived in various Saiva teachers.
Abhinavagupta synthesized in the doctrine of tricks ( '[Honoring the three goddesses] trident'), two main Saiva thought - Spandaryan (the doctrine of the Divine Energy as 'cosmic vibrations'), developed in 9. in the Shiva Sutras and Vasugupty Spandaryan-caricatures of his pupil Kallat and pratyabhidzhnyu (the doctrine of 'the recognition of' the deity), developed in 10 in. in his treatise Shiva Drishti (Shiva Contemplation) Somanandy
. Abhinavagupta thought, . that he had 'subordinate' teachings of his predecessors: 'orthodox' Shaivism, . insisted on the dualism of the Divine and the individual soul, . and 'unorthodox' monism, . who has seen (under the influence of Advaita Vedanta) in the soul manifestation of the Absolute,
. Abhinavagupta owned and systematization of tantric yoga - directions Krama ( 'gradual' descent of divine energy), Kaul (tantric erotic ritual) and the pair (the veneration of 'higher' goddess). Abhinavagupta is the author of 25 works, including treatises, commentaries, hymnography
. By Paratrimshikavivarane (Explanation tridtsatistishya of ultimate reality), . Absolut - 'supreme Shiva' - is inseparable from its space demonstration, . which rests, and which animates all things (similar to, . all thoughts are based in the minds nediskursivnom),
. All human emotions (Aesthetic, . erotic and other), . charged cosmic energy, . be properly intensified to reach a state of ecstasy (chamatkara), . and through it for direct comprehension of the supreme reality,
. For the latter characterized by the distribution and concentration, and the alternation of which is vibration (Spandaryan), which determines the rhythm of macro-and microcosm. Pulsating space power correlates with Abhinavagupta with the 'supreme word' (paravach), which is Shiva, carrying out peace-building (identical with his own thoughts) in accordance with the mystical letters of the Sanskrit alphabet. Miroproyavlenie - hierarchy Pervoslova descents, which gradually 'reduced' to the level of words of common speech in the ordinary world (the universe levels correspond to levels of speech). 'Creative meditation' on the syllable 'Saukh' (acoustic correlate of the heart) leads to understanding of the identity of the hearts of the worshiper and the Deity, . realized through 'co-fusion' (samavesha) and immersion in Higher speech: here Abhinavagupta promises 'liberation' for life, . and vpridachu omniscience and omnipotence,
The main treatise Tantraloka (Light Tantra) organizes mostly tantric yoga techniques. After the entry into chapters 2.12 describes four means of achieving 'liberation' (upaya) with the help of the deity: 1) Anupam - momentary release of-death, 2) shivopaya - Identity, . with 'neutralization' of the individual consciousness, . with the emotional 'outburst' of Shiva in his space activities (here set out the concept of light demonstration (abhasa) and the reflection of the world (pratibimba) and detailed Phonematical cosmogony), 3) shaktopaya - intellectual effort, . leading to the identification with the cosmic energy of the Divine and direct vision of 'truth', 4) anavopaya - yogic technique to achieve identity with the Divine through sacred formulas (mantra) and the ritual of drawing diagrams (yantra),
. Chapter 13-26 are devoted to the esoteric rituals of initiation (diksha), the complexity of which varies in relation to the intensity of the 'grace of the Divine', which they should be 'open' worshiper. Yogic interiorization of space motion is designed to return an adept in the 'source' of his existence. Chapters 27-28 describe the various forms of religious practice, contributing to the direct comprehension of meaning of sacred texts of Saiva Agamas. Chapter 29 is devoted to erotic ritual tantric tradition, . which is expected to interiorization unity of the two 'poles' deities (male and female) and this degree of emotional arousal (kshobha), . where can be achieved ecstatic 'admiration',
. Chapter 30-37 contain detailed descriptions of mantras, yantras, 'wheel-energy', a special addition of the fingers (mudra), as well as recommendations for the study and further transmission of esoteric texts
. Abhinavagupta had a significant impact on all further development Shaivite Tantrism in Kashmir - both directly and through the works of his closest disciple Kshemaradzhi (monistic doctrine, the cult of the goddess Trirupasundari, etc.)
. His influence was perceptible even in Tamil Nadu (the famous center of Chidambaram, where the situation and the direction of Saiva Vedanta), and spreading in Tamil (sanskritizirovannuyu) written up to 19 in. You can talk about the impact of Abhinavagupta in the further evolution of vishnuitskogo Tantrism (mainly during pancharatrikov) and 'mystified' aesthetic theory.