Pocahontas (Pocahontas)( First-hand tobacco tycoon)
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Biography Pocahontas (Pocahontas)
Well, keep flipping encyclopaedia of Richard Sax (excerpts from this remarkable book we published in the "lumps" No7 and No10). This time it will be about nicotine and Princess Pocahontas, cocaine and coca-cola. What is the connection, you ask? Richard Sachs will open your eyes: until 1903 the main component of the drink was cocaine, and a wonderful tale about a princess Pocahontas - pure fiction!
In 1886. Colonel John Pemberton, a pharmacist by training, created the first batch of Coca-Cola. "Of course, Pemberton has added to its new drink decoction of coca leaf - the historian Frederick Allen in his book" The Secret Formula "- but after hundreds of years, we can hardly count how many there were drug. And yet - even the smallest amount of it in combination with sugar and caffeine concoction made him a very stimulating drink.
. Pemberton, was already known the drugs of liver disease and cough, he decided to pursue the case and began to advance on the market of popular European wines (also, incidentally, contains cocaine) under the name "Vin Mariani".
. By the way, the creator of this wine Mariani, Angelo received for his product endorsed by many influential people of the time, including Thomas Edison and Alexander Dumas
. And Pope Leo II even gave Mariani a special commemorative medal.
But Pemberton, fearing the movement for moderation, wine has changed the formula by adding caffeine. Your ad clearly shows that Mr Pemberton sought a niche in the market is not wine, and market drugs.
Coca-Cola against the government
In 1889, Mr.. pharmacist Asa Griggs Kandler for 2300 dollars bought the rights to Coca-Cola and by putting a drink in metal utensils, cooked it, along with its own patented "balm from the blood of plants".
. Over the next 10 years, Coca-Cola has strengthened in the name of "therapeutic drink"
. Southerners have a habit of inviting each other to coca, but newspapers reported that the drink contained cocaine bring blacks to madness and violence. "
. And in 1901, Coca-Cola made a claim against the Government of the United States, saying that it is not obliged to pay tax on the patent medicine
. To prove, . that Coca-Cola is still the drug, . rather than the usual soft drink - and thus make the same Coca-Cola to pay this tax, . - The Government had to prove, . that drink enough of cocaine (ie, "drugs").,
. Aza Kandler under oath admitted that the cocaine in Coca-Cola still has
. However, government expert Dr. George Payne concluded that coca in the drink no more than 1 / 400 grains per ounce. "This is not the number, . and, . so to speak, . only trace, . smear, . - Said Dr. Payne, . - To feel the effect of the drug, . person would have to drink at least the barrel of Coca-Cola! "The jury recognized, . that Coca-Cola is virtually one sugar and water, . and the government had to pay the company 29 500 dollars.,
. But in those days, cocaine was not prohibited! Americans could buy in any drugstore dozens of cheap - and while containing cocaine - drugs for asthma or depression.
. Cheapest cocaine - in the pharmacy
. At the beginning of this century, Americans could safely buy drugs - that is, products containing cocaine, heroin and morphine
. On this did not have even a recipe! You could go to the store and type of drugs for every taste. For example, in 1898 the company Bayer released a new cough medicine, the main component of which was heroin. Advertise all of these "drugs" are widely published in all newspapers
. - Andrew powder (cocaine);
. - Anglo-American powder from Qatar (cocaine);
. - Egyptian oil Cowell (opium);
. - Coca-Cola (with cocaine);
. - A special medicine Crossman (opium);
. - German cure groats Dr. Drake (opium);
. - Soothing syrup Dr. James (heroin);
. - Medicine doctor for Moffett teething, powders Dr. Moffett (opium);
. - Heart Godfrey (opium);
. - Medication Govan from pneumonia (opium);
. - Opium elixir Harrison;
. - Expectorant Jane (opium);
. - Cough medicine (cannabis indica, morphine);
. - Smart grains Pisa (opium);
. - A cure for cholera Reksala (opium);
. - Tucker, asthma medication (with cocaine).
. Do without cocaine
. Kandler had been a good Baptist, so he tried to completely remove the cocaine from the beverage, leaving only a tiny little bit to save the brand
. Over time, Kandler becoming richer and all the respectable. And the time came when he decided to completely get rid of cocaine!
. Kandler appealed to the largest supplier of cocaine in the country - the company "Roessler and Hasslacher" - with a request to leave in the coca-cola coca leaf extract, but that there was not a trace of cocaine
. The company has received as follows: grind coca leaves, mixed them with sawdust, then strain the mixture through activated carbon and the resulting heated for a couple. So in 1903 from Coca-Cola had disappeared the drug cocaine.
Aza Kandler very timely rid of cocaine - it was in this time in the country began a movement for freedom from drugs. In 1906, Congress passed an act for the first time in American history, limiting citizens' access to drugs. However, this law was not a lot of teeth - the company still had the right to sell medicines containing the drug in them, if it was marked on the label. The only thing that was forbidden - to transport drugs across state lines (the fine for violation was a "huge" - up to $ 200!).
. In 1996, sales of Coca-Cola Company has made 18,5 billion dollars - and the company is still the largest organization, legally used in the production of coca leaves.
. Nicotine Tale "Pocahontas"
. Everyone knows the wonderful tale of a beautiful Indian girl Pocahontas
. Sorry, but the beautiful Disney - pure fiction! While Pocahontas actually really existed. True, she was representative of the tobacco industry, something of a living Indian "tobacco shop" at a time when tobacco shops not yet opened.
. Young Indian princess Pocahontas (1595 - 1617) British settlers stole - it was done for the sake of concluding a more advantageous peace with the white girl's father, the leader Pouhatanom
. While she was in custody, . Reverend Father Uaytteyker worked with a girl in English, . acquainted her with the Holy Scripture, . tried to "instill her dignified manner" (Pocahontas from childhood accustomed to go naked to the waist and often asked the boys "build it to the cart, . that she could ride on it without clothes ").,
. The girl showed good ability - it all grasp on the fly, quickly learned and quickly got used to a new life.
. She christened the name Rebecca and married to an Englishman, a farmer, John Rolf
. That tobacco plantations of John (the first in Virginia) gave the state a chance to survive.
In 1616, Mr.. John made a trip to England to show new product samples, and Pocahontas was also one of the samples.
. It should be noted that the English King James I detested tobacco, calling it "harmful to the eyes, nose disgusting and deadly to the brain."
. When Pocahontas and her husband and a dozen tribesmen arrived in London, the Indians presented to the court
. Pocahontas was a success at the Queen Anne. While all the Indians came to England in his usual dress, Pocahontas came to the palace dressed in the latest fashion - in a toilet with a high collar English. Pocahontas became a general favorite. And that's when John Smith for the first time - 10 years after it happened, - began to tell others the story about a "how-it-saved-me-on-death". Here it should be noted, . that even in 1608, John Smith wrote a book called "The real discovery of Virginia" - so here, . in this book was not a word about his miraculous escape with an Indian girl Pocahontas! And this love story was described by John Smith only in 1624, Mr.,
. Maybe Smith simply trying to attract a little more attention? Moreover, so far not found any evidence that Captain John Smith and Pocahontas actually met during her stay in England.
. Half of the arrivals from England with John Rolf Indians died of unknown disease
. Pocahontas, too, fell ill and after much suffering she died in March 1617, Mr.. aged 22. She was buried there on the shores of Albion.
As for the mission of John Rolf, it has failed: the king did not reduce taxes. However, "Virginia" for the year has raised the export of tobacco doubled - from 20 to 40 thousand pounds.
John Rolf (1585 - 1625) married again - this time an English woman, but a few years, was killed - said it did Indians. And his legacy and is now alive - in the tobacco company's Joe Camel.
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