Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel( great Spanish writer-humanist era of `tragic 'Revival)
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Biography Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel
(1547 - 23.4.1616)
Born in 1547 in a small but flourishing town of Alcala de Henares twenty miles from Madrid. He was the youngest member of the poor, but znatonoy family Hidalgo.
Father's name was Rodrigo Cervantes, mother - Leonora Kortinas. In addition to Miguel in the family had two daughters, Andrea and Louise, and son Rodrigo. The most famous Spanish writer was the fourth of seven children in the family barber-Kostoprava. He was baptized on 9 October and 29 September suggests his birthday, as this day sv.Migelya.
. Last Cervantes already had five centuries of chivalry and public service and was not only prevalent in Spain, but had its representatives in Mexico and other parts of America
. "The family is - says historian - is in the Spanish chronicles five centuries surrounded by such splendor and glory that the origin of it there is no reason to envy of any kind was the most noble families of Europe. Through the marriage tie surname Saavedra joined in the XV century with the name of Cervantes, which in the XVI century came, in the nadir. For example, Cervantes family can easily trace the history of the impoverishment of the Spanish nobility and the growth of so-called "Hidalgo" - nobles, deprived of, sir, the right of jurisdiction and the high public positions. "
. If the writer's grandfather, Juan took quite a prominent position in Andalusia, . at one time a senior mayor of the city of Cordoba and had a certain state, . the father of Cervantes, . Rodrigo, . deaf, . not held any judicial and administrative posts and went no further volnopraktikuyuschego doctor, . then there was a man even in terms of "Hidalgo" insignificant,
. By the terms of the poor and his mother belonged to the nobility of the writer.
Monument to Miguel de Cervantes
from grateful countrymen
Rodrigo de Cervantes in search of work had to move from place to place. The family followed him. Judging from the heroic efforts that parents Cervantes spent after the fact to collect the necessary sum to buy out Miguel and his younger brother Rodrigo from the Algerian captivity, the family was united and strong.
. Wandering surgeon Rodrigo de Cervantes and his family in 1551, finally settled in Valladolid, then the official capital of the kingdom
. But here he lived long. Less than a year, as Rodrigo was arrested for nonpayment of a debt to the local lender, resulting in the arrest of the already meager family's property was sold at auction.
. Again started roguish life, led Cervantes first to Cordoba, then return it to Valladolid, and from there transferred to Madrid and finally to Seville
. By valyadolidskomu period includes the school years, Miguel. Ten teenager, he entered the College of the Jesuits, where he remained for four years (1557-1561). Miguel finished his education in Madrid, one of the best for that time Spanish teacher, humanist, Juan Lopez de Hoyos, who became somewhat later than his godfather in literature.
. By the end of the sixties XVI century family Cervantes, entered a period of utter ruin
. In this regard, Miguel and his younger brother, Rodrigo had to think that to earn bread, choosing one of three possibilities open to the Spanish nobility average hand - to seek his fortune in the church, at court or in the army. Miguel, using the recommendation of his teacher, Juan Lopez de Hoyos, who proclaimed him "my dear and beloved disciple," chose the second possibility. He entered the service in an extraordinary ambassador of Pope Pius the Fifth, Monsignor Giulio Akvaviva-and-Aragon, who had arrived in 1568 in Madrid.
. At the same time have published the first poem of Cervantes, on the death of the young wife of King Philip II of Spain Elizabeth of Valois in 1568
. Together with Ambassador Cervantes left Madrid at the beginning of 1569 arrived in Rome. When Akvavive he served Camerarius (steward), which is the approximate face.
Serving the Akvavivy, which became the spring of 1570, Cardinal, Cervantes spent about a year. In the second half of 1570, he joined the Spanish army, stationed in Italy, the regiment of Miguel de Moncada.
Five years on Cervantes in the ranks of Spanish troops in Italy, were very important period in his life. They gave him the opportunity to visit the major Italian cities: Rome, Milan, Bologna, Venice, Palermo - and thoroughly acquainted with the Italian way of life. No less important than close contact with the life of the Italian XVI century, with a life of its cities, it was for Cervantes, and familiarity with the rich Italian culture, especially literature. Prolonged Cervantes in Italy allowed him not only to master the Italian language, but also to expand the humanitarian knowledge acquired by him in the Madrid school.
. By thorough acquaintance with ancient literature and mythology Cervantes added a wide acquaintance with all the best, . which created the Italian Renaissance in literature, . and in the field of philosophy, . - The poetry of Dante, . Petrarch, . Ariosto, . with the "Decameron" Boccaccio, . the Italian novel and the pastoral novel, . with Neo,
. Although Cervantes and jokingly called himself a "talent in science is not sophisticated," he was, by his own admission, a passionate reader
. Along with the greatest representatives of ancient literature - Homer, . Virgil, . Horace, . Ovid and other, . as well as the above-mentioned writers of the Italian Renaissance in the list appear on the characters of Scripture and the eastern (Arab) written,
. If we supplement this list indicating that the world of Cervantes was influenced by the ideas of Erasmus of Rotterdam, and that he was an excellent connoisseur of the National Spanish literature, folk poetry (songs) and all of the national folklore.
. Just in the early 70-ies unfolded war between the Holy League, formed by Spain, Venice and the Pope, and the Ottoman Empire
. Cervantes distinguished himself in the famous naval battle of Lepanto on Oct. 7, 1571, when the Turkish fleet was defeated. That meant the end of the expansion of Turkey in the eastern Mediterranean. On that day, Cervantes was ill with fever, . but demanded, . that he be allowed to participate in the battle: to have survived through the testimony of one of his comrades uttered his words: "I prefer, . even when sick and in the heat, . fight, . as befits a good soldier ..,
. rather than hide under the protection of the deck ". Please Cervantes was met: the head of twelve men he guarded during the battle boat ramp and received three gunshot wounds: two in the chest and one in the forearm. This last wound was fatal: Cervantes have since no longer possessed the left hand, as he himself said, "to the greater glory of the right".
Serious injuries have resulted in the writer to a hospital in Messina, where he was released only in late April 1572. But the injury is not induced him to leave military service. Enrolled in the regiment of Lope de Figueroa, Cervantes spent some time on the island of Corfu, where the regiment was quartered. October 2, 1572, he participated in the naval Battle of Navarino, and the next year joined the expeditionary force sent under the command of Don Juan of Austria in North Africa to strengthen the forts Goleta and Tunisia. In 1573 the regiment was returned to Cervantes to Italy to serve garrison duty, first in Sardinia, and somewhat later (in 1574) in Naples.
. September 20, 1575 the writer with his brother Rodrigo, who served as the Army, on board the galleys of "The Sun" departed from Naples to Spain
. The ship, which sailed Cervantes, was captured by pirates, who sold Miguel and his brother Rodrigo into slavery in Algeria. Letters of recommendation to the King, who brought with him Cervantes, raised its credibility as an important prisoner, which resulted in an increase in the amount of compensation and, accordingly, increased the period of his slavery, and on the other hand, spared him from death and punishment.
. On Freedom Cervantes was only five years, three years later his brother
. Loud, full of adventure life has been replaced by routine civil service, the constant lack of funds and feather samples. Once he even won the first prize in a contest of poets in Zaragoza - three silver spoons.
. Meanwhile, of the family during this time not only not improved, but every year it became harder, the family replenished illegitimate daughter Cervantes de Saavedra Isavelyu
. Not helped raise the family and marriage, Miguel (1584) with a native of the city Eskivyas, nineteen Catalina de Salazar-and-PALACIOS, which brought him a very small dowry. In autumn 1587 Cervantes managed to get a seat Commissioner for urgent procurements for "Invincible Armada" in the towns and villages located in the vicinity of Seville.
. Negligence in the reports resulted Cervantes September 15, 1597 in Seville royal prison, where, and spent about three months
. The new jail all in the same case to withhold sums befallen him, and in 1602. In November 1608, that is, ten or eleven years after the suit, they were again summoned Cervantes to testify.
. In 1604, Cervantes had parted with Sevilla and settled in the temporary capital of Spain - the city of Valladolid, which then moved his family (except his wife, who continued to live in Eskivyase).
. The beginning of a truly great period in the works of Cervantes, . period, . gave the world his immortal novel in two parts, "Cunning hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha", . his wonderful stories, . collection "Eight, eight comedies and interludes", . poem "Journey to Parnassus" and "Wandering Persilesa and Sihizmundy", . should be considered in 1603, . which, . apparently, . also began writing "Don Quixote".,
. These dates are set based on Cervantes' own words, that his novel was born in prison, the whereabouts of any kind of interference, the abode of mere melancholy sounds "
. The writer was referring to its opinion in the Seville prison in 1602. "Cunning hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha" (1605-1615) - a parody of romance, a kind of encyclopedia in Spanish life XVII., A work of profound social and philosophical content. The name of Don Quixote has become a common noun to describe the noble but fruitless efforts.
The second part of Cervantes's novel was written ten years later than the first. Between the two parts are other works of Cervantes, namely: "didactic novel" (1613) and "Eight, eight comedies and interludes, a compilation of 1615.
. Roman "Cunning hidalgo Don Quixote Lamanchesky" appeared in Madrid bookstores in January 1605, Mr.
. The author used the well-known more for their suffering in Algerian captivity than literary fame, a man already old, to the same disability.
. Release and works written in the first years after returning home from the Algerian captivity: pastoral novel, "Galatea" and up to thirty dramatic works, comedies, most of which did not reach us.
. For information about Cervantes' drama "Seville" period of his creativity is limited by the fact that speaks of his early dramas Cervantes himself in the preface to released them in 1615 the collection "Eight, eight comedies and interludes"
. He said that in the theaters in Madrid were playing its "Algerian customs" and "Destruction of Numancia" and the "Naval Battle", and acknowledged himself the author written by him at that time twenty or thirty pieces. Do not come down to us, "Naval Battle", as far as we can assume title of the play, celebrated in the victory of Lepanto, which played a fateful role in the life of Cervantes.
. The second part of "Don Quixote" was written, apparently, in 1613 and has appeared on sale in November 1615.
. In the interval between the publication of the first and second parts of "Don Quixote", in 1613, came second in their literary value work of Cervantes, namely its "didactic novel"
. Translated shortly after its introduction into French, English, Italian and Dutch languages, stories served as the source for a number of stage adaptations. Hearty welcome, . extended to the Spanish writers "edifying novels", . is an undeniable recognition of the truth of the words of Cervantes, . that "it was the first, . who began writing short stories for Castilian, . For all printed in Spain, numerous stories have been translated from foreign languages. ",
. The final period in the life of Cervantes, very rich in creative terms, proceeded mainly in Madrid, where Cervantes moved after the proclamation of the city the capital of the kingdom in 1606.
. In Madrid, he lived in poor neighborhoods, financial status and his family did not become easier
. But without improving the situation of Cervantes, the huge success of his novel inspired the writer to continue work on the prose, the unsurpassed master of which he was.
. These years were for him overshadowed by the death of both his sisters, before his death postrigshihsya a nun, and the second marriage of his daughter Isaveli de Saavedra, have expanded the material constraint of the writer in connection with the requirement to guarantee the bride's dowry
. The example of the sisters was followed Cervantes and his wife, who also vows. Yes, and Cervantes joined in 1609 of the Brotherhood of the slaves of the Holy Communion, whose members were not only VIPs, but also a number of major Spanish writers (including Lope de Vega and Quevedo). Later, in 1613, Cervantes was tertsiariem (a member of the Brotherhood polumonasheskogo religious laity) of the Franciscan Order and the eve of his death had "complete dedication".
Cervantes died on April 23, 1616. He was buried in that of his own monastery at the expense of charitable amounts Brotherhood.
Completed suffering, but full of noble life of a writer and citizen. "Excuse me, joy!" Excuse me, fun! "Excuse me, gay friends, I die in the hope of a speedy and happy meeting in another world". With these words addressed brilliant Spaniard to his readers in the preface to his latest creation.
. But after several centuries of Cervantes is alive in people's minds, as alive and its immortal heroes - a knight and squire are still wandering in search of goodness, justice and beauty of the boundless plains of their homeland.
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