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HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)

( Iraqi President)

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Biography HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
photo HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
Saddam Hussein was born April 28, 1937, Mr.. in the village of al-Avci in the south district (Kada) Tikrit. Father, Saddam Hussein Majid - a poor peasant, who had devoted his life earth - died before his son into the world. The boy grew up in a family of his uncle al-Haj Ibrahim al-Hassan, who, according to local custom, after the death of his brother married his widow.
.
. In 1947, wanting to learn, Saddam ran away from his native village in Tikrit, where he lived in the house of mother's brother Heyrallaha Tulfaha
. Member of anti-colonial movement led by al-Gailani, 1941, he taught the lessons of Saddam nationalism and hatred of foreign domination.

In 1954, Mr.. seventeen Saddam came to Baghdad, where he enrolled in school al-Karkh, which was known as a stronghold of nationalism and pan-Arabism.

Huge influence on the situation in Iraq has provided the Egyptian revolution of July 23, 1952, Mr.. For Saddam Abdel Nasser was the idol, the ideal of pan-Arab nationalist. In 1957. twenty years, Saddam joined the Iraqi branch of the pan-Arab Baath Party (PASV).

14 July Revolution 1958. was a turning point in the history of the country. Iraq was proclaimed a republic.

Spring 1959. intensified the struggle between the two leading parties - the Iraqi Communist Party (ICP) and the Baath Party. However, the Baathists became an effective propaganda. One of the main reasons for the success of the Baathists in the struggle for influence on the masses and the intelligentsia was handling pan-Arab ideas and slogans of Arab unity, . they had been clearer and closer, . than abstract "proletarian internationalism, the Communists.,
.
. During an unsuccessful attempt to head of government Abdel Karim Kassem on Oct. 6, 1959, Mr.
. Saddam was wounded in the leg. Overcoming pain in the leg, risking being caught every moment and moving only at night, Saddam made it to the native al-Avci (for which he had four days to ride a horse, and then swam to overcome the rough and cold Tiger). From al-Avci, he went to Syria, in Damascus - the main center Ba'athism. February 21, 1960, Mr.. Saddam aircraft flew to Cairo. A new stage of his life.
.
. In those years, Cairo was the center of Arab nationalism, revolutionary "socialism national type."
.
. After studying a year in the famous high school Qasr Al-Nil and receiving matriculation, Saddam joined the Faculty of Law, Cairo University, where he studied for two years.
.
. In Cairo, Saddam is a terrorist fighter grew up in a noticeable party functionary, becoming a member of the steering committee PASV in Egypt.

. The first Baath coup and the return of the "Cairo exile"
.
. February 8, 1963, Mr.
. PASV headed established by it, "socialist bloc" had seized power in Baghdad. In the country's history was written in the new tragic and bloody page: Baathists, who stay in power for 9 months.
.
. In the first days after the coup, Saddam returned to Baghdad.
.
. While many ambitious Arabs sought to become military officers, as it was the surest way to a prominent position in society, to a brilliant career.
.
. Saddam, . through his personal qualities, . could be a good officer, and at one time dreamed of a military career, . but, . analyzing the course of events in their country, . which occurred first in the Arab world military coups, . he became more convinced of the fragility, . unreliability of the military regime to build a strong and stable State power,
. All the more attractive to him becoming a model of Bolshevik Russia and Nazi Germany, internally stable and manage to create the most powerful army in the world, relying on one-party system.
.
. Saddam was carefully studying the experience of the communist movement, with particular emphasis on the organizational structure of the party, delves into Stalin's methods of establishing control over the party and state apparatus.
.
. In contrast to Nasser, the phenomenon of Saddam Hussein did not arise by virtue of its impact on the officer corps or the qualities of a charismatic leader, and through control of the party apparatus
. His strength lay in the organizational talent, . allowed to create a strict party structure, . select and arrange the executive, . hull and dedicated individuals, . weave intricate plots against dangerous opponents and eliminate them, . skillful use of tribal, . clan, . regional and family ties and contradictions.,

. At the VI Congress of the Arab League PASV (Damascus, October 1963), Hussein made a brilliant speech in which he harshly criticized the work of Ali Saleh Al Saadi, secretary general of the Iraqi party with PASV 1960
. You had to have great courage to speak out against the strong man of Iraq. Upon his return to Baghdad, Saddam tried to arrest him, but he managed to slip out of the hands of National Guardsmen.

On the recommendation of the Congress pan-Arab regional congress of the Iraqi PASV November 11, 1963, Mr.. Al-Saadi dismissed from the post of general secretary, with responsibility for crimes committed during the months of the Baathists in power. The activities of Saddam Hussein on the pan-Arab congress would have some value in his political career. It has not gone unnoticed and, moreover, made a strong impression on Michel Aflyaka - founder and secretary general of the Party. Since October 1963. between them have established strong ties that were not interrupted until the death of the founder of the party.
.
. A few weeks after Congress PASV in Damascus, 18 November, the army led by General Aref removed the Baathists from power.
.
. At that time, Saddam is in a deep underground, has begun to establish a new party actually
. He managed to persuade the pan-Arab leadership of the justice of his plan for restructuring the organizational structure of PASV, which in February 1964. decided to establish a new Iraqi leadership PASV of 5 people, among whom were popular in the country, General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr and Saddam Hussein, included in the regional leadership on the recommendation of Aflyaka.
.
. In difficult conditions underground Baathists under Saddam Hussein made two unsuccessful attempts to seize power in Baghdad
. S. Hussein was arrested, shackled and imprisoned in solitary confinement.

Under the plan, developed by al-Bakr in July 1966, was made an escape party functionaries, among whom was Saddam. At an emergency regional congress, held in the exclusive privacy in September 1966, Secretary of the Party became al-Bakr and his deputy - S. Hussein. He was appointed to lead a special unit (al-Jihaz al-Khas) Party codenamed "Jihaz Hanin". "Hanin" was the brainchild of Saddam, his invention, the creation of which he started in 1964, Mr.. It was a secret apparatus, consisting of the most dedicated staff, and dealing with intelligence and counterintelligence. July 17, 1968, Mr.. PASV made a successful coup, removing Aref. The supreme power in the country passed to the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) headed by al-Bakr, secretary general of PASV, who also took over as president and supreme commander. S. Hussein as assistant general secretary of the party became deputy chairman of the RCC responsible for internal security.

. "Leading and guiding."

. Creating the Front of Patriotic Forces
.
. However, within the party ever more clearly a mature understanding of the need to somehow "humanize" person mode
. It was found necessary to take steps to solve the Kurdish problem and the creation of "front of patriotic forces" - of course, under the auspices of the PASV. With great fanfare was made public declaration of Kurdish autonomy. It does not take long to impact the political environment: in northern Iraq, where Kurds live, to cease hostilities against government forces.
.
. But the most serious rival Baathists remained the ICP, a struggle which was facilitated by the fact that after the Arab-Israeli war of 1967
. Communist Party split into two parts: the Central Command, headed by Aziz Al-Haj, which launched the underground struggle against the PASV, and the Central Committee (CC), who was with PASV in unstable truce.
.
. In July 1970
. the initiative of Saddam Hussein PASV put forward a number of conditions, the adoption of which would open the way for entry of the Central Committee of the National Progressive Front:
. - Recognition of the historically progressive nature of the revolution 17 July 1968;
. - Recognition of "PASV leadership in government, mass organizations and the front."
.
. The terms were accepted, and in July 1973
. National Action Charter (HND) was signed by President al-Bakr as the Secretary General PASV and first secretary of the ICP Aziz Muhammudom.
.
. Same Democratic Party of Kurdistan (DPK) rejected a proposal to join the NPF, . however, adopted a law on the autonomy of the CMB Kurdistan caused a split in the ranks of the Kurdish national movement, . and stand out from the KDP "New APP" along with other Kurdish political forces began to cooperate with the government in the creation of autonomous government of Kurdistan.,
.
. So, Saddam Hussein managed to carry out an ambitious plan: to split the ranks of the ICP and the KDP, to push them together and deliver a crushing blow to the main political opponents PASV.

. The resignation of al-Tikriti and Ammash
.
. But soon a fierce competitive struggle has developed within the top PASV and the Revolution Command Council.
.
. Among the most influence on the Baathists in the military used the General Hardan al-Tikriti (as al-Bakr and Saddam Hussein, he was from Tikrit), who commanded the Air Force during the first mode PASV, after the Revolution of 1968
. became Deputy Supreme Commander, . Deputy Prime Minister, . Defense Minister and Chief of Staff, . Being a member of the RCC and, . and other notable Ba'athist officer - Salih Mahdi Ammash, . Interior Minister, . member pan-Arab and regional leadership of the party (the only, . What the opponents, . - Hatred of the civilian wing of the party, . which are managed by Hussein).,
.
. April 3, 1976, Mr.
. Both rivals have been appointed vice-presidents. The apparent increase in practice meant the loss of key positions in government.
.
. The first was subjected to disgrace, al-Tikriti: while you are traveling abroad, he unexpectedly received a notice of his release from all their posts and the appointment of an ambassador, that he was contemptuously rejected
. A few months later he was killed in Kuwait by four unknown persons, which was not found.

Ammash luckier: in September 1976. He was dismissed from all his posts and was appointed ambassador to Finland.

Thus, the struggle between military and civilian factions ended in victory for PASV from recent. Decisive role in the outcome of the confrontation played by President al-Bakr, who seriously feared al-Tikriti and wary about Ammash. At the same time, according to the president, a young and inexperienced in political intrigues S. Hussein, is not enjoyed to the same in any influence in the army does not pose any threat to him. In addition, they were linked by close bonds of kinship: both were from Tikrit, one of the tribal subsection to the same cousin of Saddam Adnan Kheir Allah was married to the daughter of the president.

. One-man show
.
. Constantly expanding and improving "Jihaz Hanin" - a favorite child, . he created at the dawn of his political activities, . - Saddam Hussein used it, . not only to remove and destroy any group or individual, . that threatened the dominance of external PASV, . but also to remove the many factions and groups within the party, . an iron hand by rallying her on the basis of unanimity,
. One of the main objectives was to establish PASV full ideological and administrative control over the army through its baasizatsii. In the military academies and colleges were taken only members PASV, and the top positions were appointed only officers associated with Hussein and the Tikrit clan.
.
. Baathists from the very beginning in fact conducted a course on the transition to a one-party system, based on the army, and to extend the system of state security.
.
. Politics monopoly power increases with the gradual displacement of the top leadership of the Party "war" functionaries - the supporters of al-Bakr - "civilian" minions of Saddam Hussein
. Real power is increasingly moving from an al-Bakr to S. Hussein, who was 25 years younger than the general. By 1977, Mr.. Party organizations of provinces (Liv), secret service, the command of the army and the ministers already report directly to Saddam.
.
. Hussein understood that the implementation of its extremely ambitious plans have been impossible without a sharp rise in living standards, and began to implement economic and social reforms
. Their top favorably coincided with an unprecedented increase in the revenues from Iraqi oil. Standard of living of the population has increased markedly. For the very same Saddam is one of the main motivations at that time was the desire to change its image as a well-known for his cruelty to the strong man "worthy of praise and admiration of available national leader."
.
. Meanwhile, total baasizatsiya covered all parts of the state apparatus, social, professional and mass organizations; forced rates, coalescence of the Party and state apparatus
. "Jihaz Hanin" stretched its tentacles throughout the country.
.
. Fluor pronounced ideological nature of the education system has led to what nebaasistam were closed doors, not only in the military, but also, for example, in teacher training colleges, the Institute of Fine Arts and so on.
.
. After the agreement 1975
. Iran policy baasizatsii ethnic minorities, especially Kurds, combined with the policy of forced Arabization.

During 1975-1978 he. of Kurdistan, was deported from 300 to more than 350 thousand. pers., burned 250 Kurdish villages.

No less cruel blows were inflicted on the Shia community. In a country where Shiites formed the majority of its population (55-60%), they continued to remain economically and socially second-class citizens. Bitter clashes with the Shiite regime occurred in February 1977. Order restored only after the south had made significant troop.
.
. After the massacre of Kurds and Shiites PASV no longer needed in collaboration with the ICP, which remained the only obstacle to the establishment of complete hegemony PASV
. Began squeezing the Communists from all spheres of life of Iraqi society.

In May 1978. 31 Communists and their supporters, accused of setting up their cells in the army, were executed. Hussein showed volume-communists "foreign agents", "traitors to the Iraqi homeland," and arrested almost all of their representatives in the NPF and banned all publications of the ICP. Thus, the front stopped even formally exist, and ICP went into hiding.
.
. Since then, Iraq has become a country with a one-party system, PASV monopoly on power and total indoctrination of society imposed by blood and iron.
.
. Now, Saddam Hussein has successfully disposed of all its external enemies and rivals-party comrades, felt it was time to "father" give place "son"
. July 17, 1979, Mr.. "father-leader of al-Bakr was deprived of all his posts and placed under house arrest, and the official version - resigned disease. President Saddam Hussein began.

His accession to the highest level of power, Saddam said in his own way - an ambitious campaign of "cleansing", more precisely, the pogrom of real and potential rivals. Among those shot was the third member of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), ministers, members of the regional leadership PASV, union leaders and, finally, the appointees of the "rais" (president).
.
. As president, Saddam is increasingly talked about the special mission of Iraq's Arab and "third" world, claiming the laurels of pan-Arab leader of the mass of staff, as Abdel Nasser
. At the conference of Non-Aligned countries in Havana in 1979. Hussein promised to provide developing countries with long-term interest-free loans, equal to the amount received from higher oil prices, caused rapturous applause the audience (and, indeed, gave about a quarter billion. U.S.. - The difference in prices in 1979).

Islamic revolution in Iran that overthrew in February 1979. Shah, has caused serious concern within the ruling elite of Iraq, and the subsequent war between the countries, of course, was a serious challenge not only to ambitious regional ambitions of Iraq, but also threatened the very existence of the Baathist regime. Deep historical, national, religious, ideological and territorial claims have continued to divide the two countries. Not from recent role in the aggravation of relations played acrimony and long-standing rivalry between two extremely ambitious leaders - Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and Saddam Hussein, had its own history.
.
. Khomeini, exiled from Iran in 1964, found refuge in the holy Shia Iraqi town of Najaf
. Hussein, a long time do not dare send Ayatollah of Najaf, strictly "advised" him to "keep quiet". In November 1978, when anti-Shah movement in Iran increased, the Baathist government, in agreement with the Shah, expelled Khomeini from Iraq.

For the "master" Baghdad's large-scale armed action in September 1980. was due, among other reasons, and the desire to adopt Iraq as the leading regional power, and himself - in the long-cherished role as a "knight of the Arab nation" and "the sword of the Arabs". And finally, last but perhaps most importantly - he sought to annex the oil-rich province of Khuzestan, which Baathists termed "Arabistan", and to establish full control over the water through the Shatt al-Arab.
.
. Planning their "Iranian campaign, and Hussein took into account the extremely negative attitude to the Islamic revolution, the U.S., which tacitly encouraged Iraq's aggression against Iran.
.
. But just two weeks after the war, it became clear that the plan "Blitzkrieg" was a total failure, and already on October 5, Iraq announced its readiness to return to their original positions.
.
. Iran-Iraq battle was the longest regional war in the XX. That led to massive loss of life (the number of dead range from 0.5 to 1 million
. pers.), without giving anyone any acquisitions and benefits - neither Baghdad nor Tehran. Nonetheless, Iran was forced to acknowledge the resolution? 598 UN Security Council in 1988, removing the slogan "War to a victorious end!". That was enough for Ba'athist propaganda to Iraq to declare a winner.
.
. After the war was reinforced implanted personality cult of Saddam.
.
. Literally on every corner of any Iraqi city portrait of Rais, . showing its ancient warrior, . Playboy in a silk suit with a huge cigar, or a simple nomad, . in the pose of Napoleon sitting on a white horse, . Finally, . shaking hands with King Nebuchadnezzar II, . who twice captured Jerusalem and banished the Jews in Babylonia,
. Thought guileless, but ambitious: Saddam, "the hero of national liberation", ostensibly to take the baton from the hands of history, to revive the glory of ancient Iraq.

The rapid increase in weight in the region of Iraq has caused wariness of its former allies. Created in the midst of the confrontation with Baghdad, Tehran Cooperation Council of Arab States, the Gulf (GCC), led by Saudi Arabia sought to restore parity in Iraq and Iran, . not to become dependent on any one, . or from another,
. The small Gulf states after the war ended quickly began to restore relations with Iran.

In the new circumstances Hussein decided to accelerate the upgrading of the army with modern weapons and develop the military industry. As a result, only two post-war years he managed to create the largest in the Arab East war machine. Almost a million Iraqi army, equipped with modern weaponry, has become one of the largest in the world. This could not but alarm the West. The Western media, have created during the Iran-Iraq war, an attractive image of Iraq as a defender of European civilization and the Arab States, hastily proceeded to create almost the opposite way.
.
. But Saddam Hussein would not have been if it had not tried to use the deterioration of relations with the West itself is in good
. The rhetoric of Raisa, caught by a powerful Iraqi propaganda machine, a refrain sounded allegations of "hostile environment", which is doing its utmost to prevent "strategic parity with Israel, Iraq". Saddam's personal popularity reached its peak by the beginning of the Arab summit meeting in Baghdad in May 1990, . where he urged the participants to form a united front against aggression (West), . stressing the importance of enhancing coordination among the Arabs.,
.
. However, instead of creating a united front headed to Baghdad at the meeting there were signs that other Arab governments are willing to challenge the claims of Saddam's leadership
. And the role of "Brutus" is played by President Mubarak of Egypt.

In Baghdad, Mubarak, in a veiled form of "carved" the Baghdad dictator. Arab leaders understand who the words were addressed to Mubarak that the "Arab mission should be a humane, logical and realistic, free of exaggeration of their role and intimidation:". Became clear, . that the Egyptian-Iraqi rapprochement, . developed in the preceding years upward and reached its peak in February 1989, . when the two largest Arab states united in the Arab Cooperation Council (NAC) - the organization, . created as a counterweight to increase the influence of Saudi Arabia, . - Not only stopped, . but began to wane.,
.
. And further, as the restoration of the regional role of Egypt, Mubarak is more firmly distanced himself from Hussein
. And by that time, when pumped by Iraq, tensions with Kuwait grew at the end of July 1991. the crisis stage, the line of the subsequent split between Egypt and Iraq is already present. Establishing a new axis of Cairo - Riyadh - Damascus as a counterweight to Baghdad.

. Faded star
.
. For Saddam Hussein fell on hard times: his ideas about the special role of Iraq's Arabism, . to put it mildly, . being challenged by regional rivals, . and the implementation of ambitious plans to achieve economic power comes up against the limited natural resources and a lack of money.,
.
. By the time the war with Iran and Iraq formed a huge foreign debt (according to various estimates, from 60 to 80 billion
. dollars). Meanwhile, the decision of all monetary issues, they saw Hussein, is literally at hand: a little Kuwait - the oil rich emirate, which Saddam owes 18 billion. U.S.!
.
. Saddam believed that he could quickly "absorb" Kuwait and bring the world a fait accompli.
.
. Saddam Hussein can be reproached for anything, . but not in the absence of consistency: the decision on the annexation of Kuwait was taken in full accordance with the theory of orthodox Ba'athism, . Pan-Arab postulates that appeal to the idea of freedom from imperialism and the unity of the Arab world - an artificially divided the whole,
. Therefore, Kuwait bourgeois democracy, . capitalist in nature and directed against Arabism (Uraba) and Arab unity, . should be replaced by a "people's democracy", . having anti-imperialist and pro-Arab unity and socialism,
. Yet Saddam Hussein was necessary to prepare public opinion both in Iraq and other Arab countries. Iraq's propaganda machine once again ran at full capacity.
.
. The essence of the "claims" of Baghdad to Kuwait (as well as to other countries - members of the GCC) was as follows: Kuwait "systematically and intentionally" damaging to Iraq, . organizing "economic aggression" by lowering the price of oil, . causing a financial crisis in Baghdad, . refuses to cancel tens of billion,
. U.S.. Iraqi debt. Besides, . S. Hussain, . as grand master of the political game and advocacy, . skillfully used the hostility of the masses of the region to public, . allowing the ruling families to appropriate national resources, . and the widespread dissatisfaction with the unresolved Middle East conflict and the mass emigration of Jews from the Soviet Union in Israel.,
.
. The challenge posed by Saddam, suddenly acquired enormous political force
. The West's annexation of Kuwait has caused grave concern not so much the military success of the regime as the extent of popular support, which has found this action in the Arab world.

However, the lightning victory of Iraq was a Pyrrhic. Return of Kuwait Motherland "was not just a tactical blunder, but a serious strategic mistake of Saddam Hussein. West could not tolerate the taking of the emirate - is too big a blow to its vital interests: on the existing world economic order, . integral part of which are cheap, Kuwaiti oil and gas, . Safety pro-Western monarchies of the region and Israel.,
.
. Course, . Hussein's reaction to the West was not unexpected, . it really something it counted, . but miscalculated: apparently, . deep down he thought, . that at the critical moment of the Soviet Union would support Iraq, . moreover, . expected to turn a crisis into an all-out Arab-Israeli war,
. However, he underestimated the depth of the changes that have occurred in the Soviet Union and the Arab world.
.
. United States moved into the Gulf strike force of its army, and, through the mechanism of the UN, formed a coalition, which includes all the major military powers of the West and the Arab world
. Iraq was given a tough ultimatum - January 15, 1991. withdraw from Kuwait. Otherwise - war.
.
. And Saddam Hussein once again confirmed his reputation as an unpredictable politics: he rejected the possibility of a peaceful outcome and have opted for war, despite the fact that the overwhelming superiority of the "multinational force" led by the United States is beyond doubt.
.
. This was the second, . aggravates the first, . Saddam's mistake: it, . what happened in the Gulf, . except slaughter not call: the fighting was mostly U.S. Air Force, . which, . having complete air superiority, . deliver crushing blows to the military and economic targets in Iraq.,
.
. February 28, 1991, after approval by Iraq to comply with all 12 UN Security Council resolutions on Kuwait, the military action ceased
. Data on casualties of Iraq for 6 weeks of Operation Desert Storm "well hidden and has not yet been published, . however, . to various estimates, . they are not only comparable to the damage, . Baghdad has suffered for 8 years of war with Iran, . but, . apparently, . in many ways superior to it.,

. Why miscalculated the Baghdad dictator?
.
. Some experts point to the fact that the governor of Baghdad almost never went out of their country, neither knows nor understands the West, and therefore could not foresee the consequences of his Kuwait adventure
. Others agreed that the Iraqi leader is simply a typical fanatic, intending to make history with a halo "martyr for the Arab cause."
.
. The key to understanding the nature, . mentality of Saddam Hussein, . his thoughts and feelings to be found in, . he - a typical mesopotamets, . such, . how to describe it another 600 years ago, Arab historian Ibn Khaldun, . singled out above all such properties of nature Iraqis, . as maximalism and integrity: they either take the entire thing, . or all rejected.,
.
. This was indirectly confirmed by the views on the history of the Raisa their country
. On the eve of war with Iran in 1980. He said that Iraq throughout its history, ancient and modern, was a winner, a horse, or else find themselves under the hooves of enemy cavalry - and the other is not given. According to well-known Lebanese journalist Karim al-Bakraduni, Saddam - "tragic hero, Shakespeare's personality.

Execution

Despite the defeat in the Gulf War, Saddam remained in power. As the only candidate for presidential elections in October 1995, he won with 99,96% votes and was appointed to another term of seven years. In May 2001 he was again elected secretary general of the regional leadership of the Iraqi Baath Party. In October 2002, Saddam received 100% of the vote in a referendum, which he described as a confrontation between the Iraqi people, the threat of war from the U.S.. In March 2003, the failure of Iraq's cooperation with UN inspectors in the field of nuclear weapons led to the invasion of Iraq by U.S. troops to topple Saddam Hussein. Since March 2003, when the U.S. launched a military operation against Iraq, was forced into hiding, but on Dec. 14 in his hometown of Tikrit, was detained and arrested.

June 30, 2004, Mr.. Saddam Hussein, along with 11 members of the Baathist regime (including the former Prime Minister Tariq Aziz and Minister of Defense Sultan al-Hashimi) has been transferred to Iraqi authorities, . but already on July 1 in Baghdad, the first sitting of the court in the case of ex-president, . has been charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes,
. Among the latter, in particular - the destruction of about 5 thousand. Kurds - representatives of the Barzani tribe in 1983, the use of chemical weapons against residents Halabadzhi in 1988. (resulting in death and about 5 thousand people), the implementation of the military operation "Al-Anfal" in the same 1988 (culminated in the destruction of some 80 Kurdish villages), the outbreak of war with Iran in 1980-1988. and aggression against Kuwait in 1990.

The trial of Saddam Hussein was held in Baghdad at the base of the armed forces of the United States "Camp Victory, located in the closed zone international airport.

November 5, 2006 Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death by hanging on charges of the massacre of 148 Shiites, done in 1982. in Dujail (in addition to this, a few days later initiated another trial of ex-president - in the case of genocide of the Kurds in the late 1980's.). Lawyers appeal which was subsequently rejected by the judicial authorities of the country

. December 26 2006 Iraq's appeals court upheld the verdict and ordered to be carried out within 30 days, and on December 29 has published a formal decision on punishment.

. Dec. 30 about six o'clock in the morning in Baghdad (Moscow time coincides with Baghdad) Saddam was put to death by hanging
. The exact location of executions became known only a few hours: According to channel Al-Arabia, all action takes place at the headquarters of military intelligence of Iraq. Thus, speculation on this topic was limited to "green zone" of the Iraqi capital, where are all the government institutions in the country. At the scaffold was attended by a few senior witnesses: members of the American military commanders, Iraqi officials, some judges and representatives of the Islamic clergy, as well as physician and operator. Saddam's last moments were captured in videotape

. Adviser to the President of Iraq on security Muwaffaq al-Rubaie told the channel "Al-Iraq reported details saddamova ascent to the gallows:" Heading to the gallows, . He looked dejected, . but calm and not try to resist ",
. Iraqi laws provide for the last will of the convicted person, and I must say, even Saddam's final gesture was not without politics. Suicide rechovke he chose prayer, and finally said: "God is great. Our nation is victorious, and Palestine - Arab territories. Then Hussain asked to give someone the Koran, which all this time holding a. "This is his request is fulfilled," - concluded al-Rubaie.

. In his last written address to the nation Hussein called on Iraqis to renounce hatred, . because hate does not allow a person to act honestly, . it blinds him and prevents think ", . with the implicit hatred of any property - even "to foreigners, . who attacked us, . and those, . who governs them. ",

. Saddam Hussein remained 4 wives (at the latest of which - the daughter of the Minister of Defense Industry of the country - he was married in October 2002), and 3 daughters
. The sons of ex-President - Uday and Qusay - were killed in July 2004. in Mosul during a special operation troops of anti-Iraq coalition.


Photos of HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • Mother called his name, Saddam Б•  Б•L, which in Arabic means Б•  whoever opposes Б•L
  • In 1963, Saddam married the daughter of a prominent party leader Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr
  • On Saddam, as a prospective leader, staked and the Soviet Union and the U.S.
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • Hussein and his son
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)

Photos of HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
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  • Michael for HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • The courageous leader of the Iraqi people who are not inclined pesed West and did not return their country to be looted.
  • Olya for HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • Long live Saddam! He is alive, he would return and will not allow both to mock his country!
  • saddam for HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • Glory to the great Saddamu.Ty will live forever in our memory!
  • Sahib for HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • he lives
  • Mourad Nouri for HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein)
  • was not good just feel sorry for him
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    HUSSEIN Saddam (Saddam Hussein), photo, biography
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