Aksakov Ivan Sergeevich( Russian writer, editor and publisher, poet and critic, one of the ideologists of Slavophilism.)
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Biography Aksakov Ivan Sergeevich
(1823-1886), son of S. Aksakov, brother K. Aksakov. Born on September 26 (8 October) 1823 in s.Kuroedovo (Nadezhina) Belebey district Orenburg Province. In 1826-1838 intermittently lived with his family in Moscow, where he received education at home. After graduating from the St. Petersburg School of Jurisprudence in 1842-1843 he served in Moscow 6-m (criminal) Department of the Senate (in 1847-1848 its chief secretary), in memory of this period is written mystery for officials (1843, publ. 1861 in London), praised the courage of the lone fighter against bureaucracy and frustration in the effectiveness of public service (which, however, he Aksakov continued in Astrakhan, Kaluga, St. Petersburg and Yaroslavl Province. until his resignation in February 1851).
In 1852 in Moscow under the editorship of Aksakova first volume of 'the Moscow collection of' united 'senior' and 'junior' Slavophiles and published, among other things, the obituary Gogol. In March 1853 the manuscript of the second volume, just as the publication had been banned because of the article Aksakov of Yaroslavl 'community of artisans' as the ideal social structure. Aksakov lost the right to edit any publication and was subjected to police supervision. In 1855-1856, during the Crimean War, joined Serpuchovskay squad, which included the Moscow militia, (got to Bessarabia, in the battles did not participate). Traveling to Europe, . in London, met with AI Herzen (who, . later broke up with Aksakov because of the support of a policy of the tsarist government in Poland, . spoke about the meeting: 'We are with him, . agreed very ...'), . in the Slavic countries, initiated the creation of the Slavic charitable committees,
. Upon returning to Moscow Aksakov became the office manager of the journal 'Agricultural improvement', and in 1858-1859, after removal of the ban on editorial operations - the de facto editor of AI Koshelev 'Russian conversation'
. Since that time Aksakov - leading Slavophile publicist, . accept the thesis KS Aksakov of 'moral equivalence' in Old Russia and calls for a Russia of 'society' - vsesoslovnoy 'environment', . inspired nonpartisan 'national consciousness', . abolishes 'nenarodnuyu' aristocratic intelligentsia - an appendage of the state apparatus - and extends it privileges 'to all estates',
. A publisher-editor of the Moscow newspapers 'Sail' (1859), . 'Day' (1861-1865), . 'Moscow', . 'Moskvich' (both 1867-1868), . 'Rus' (1880-1886), . so often persecuted by the authorities and closing, . that Aksakova called 'passion-censorship of all ages and directions',
. In the late 1850's made friends with the Moscow merchants (in t.ch. I.F. and NF mammoth and well-known publisher KT Soldatenkova who materially support its publication)
. Aksakov In 1857-1878 - head of the Moscow Slav Committee (removed from his post and expelled from Moscow after speaking at a meeting of the Moscow Slavic Benevolent Society sharply criticized the position of Russian diplomats at the Congress of Berlin 1878, . agree to a division of Bulgaria and the transfer of part of its power under Turkey, . that infringed, . according Aksakov, . interests of Russia after the Russian-Turkish war),
. In 1870-1880-ies Aksakov (carried away by the time the ideas of Pan-Slavism, . what is pled his followers and adherents, Fyodor Dostoevsky) was closely linked to Moscow's financial community, and in 1869 - one of the founders of the Moscow Merchant Society of mutual credit (in 1847 chairman of its board),
. Was a member of the Society of Russia's literature and in 1872-1874 its chairman. Son in Law (from 1866) and an admirer of FITyutchev, . biographical sketch by Fyodor Tyutchev (1874), . which developed the concept of polemical 'Pushkin' period of Russian Poetry, . ending with the death of Tyutcheva; himself was the author of meditation and infused with pathos, lyricism Slavophil, . published in Moscow publications ( 'Moskvityanin', . 'Moscow literary scholar and a collection of 1847', . 'Moscow City leaf', etc.): We all suffer and yearn, . Strange feeling enveloped the soul, . Russian poet, . The stigma of shame home, . I'm tired of forces for a long time did not spare, . as well as the poetic narrative Winter road, . Poetic license (1845) and the unfinished poem Rogue (1846-1850), . exerted influence on Lewis Carroll's poem Who Lives Well in Russia,
In 1860-1880-ies Aksakov sought to understand the new trends of social life post-reform Russia in the light of ideas KS Aksakov and Khomyakov. Aksakov hoped that the peasant reform will lead to the convergence of the estates in Russia, and Institute zemstvos will help restore organic social ties, characteristic, to convince Slavophiles, for the history of Russia. Aksakov considered, . that the continued existence of the nobility after 1861 can not, . and proposed a draft of the nobility as the self-class, . repeal of all 'artificial division of the estates' privileges of the nobility and spread to all estates Russia,
. The idea was put forward by the self-nobility Aksakov in controversy with the ideology of aristocratic constitutionalism. Aksakov soon lost hope of rapid progress in Russia non-estate social harmony, but continued to criticize constitutionalism. Required liberal nobility constitution, in his opinion, is alien to the people's spirit and lead to the final rupture between the people and power
. Like the first Slavophiles, . in the views Aksakova monarchism combined with the recognition of the need of personal and social freedom and imperfection of any form of statehood: 'State, . sure, . must, . but should not believe in him as the sole objective and complete standard of humanity,
. Public and personal ideal of humanity is above all ... States, just as the conscience and inner truth are above the law and truth outside '. In the early 1860 Aksakov formulates the idea of 'society'. In his opinion, in Russia for ending serfdom, developing and strengthening a new social force - 'society', 'people are self-conscious' - essentially, the people's intelligentsia, designed to overcome the alienation between the state and nation. 'Society - claimed Aksakov - uniting people of all classes, it is the power it is a social and spiritual, not political, "and for its normal development are absolutely essential basic freedoms (speech, press, conscience). But in the mid 1860's, watching the social processes in the country, he concludes that 'society' was 'powerless', unable to fulfill such a need to unite Russia and creative mission. Aksakov tried to follow not only the socio-political, but religious and philosophical ideas of the first Slavophiles, begun by his predecessors dispute with rationality, seeing it as a logical knowledge, 'divorced from moral principle'.
Aksakov died in Moscow on 27 January (8 February) 1886.