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Aksakov Stanislavski

( Russian writer, critic, poet, historian, linguist, one of the ideologists of Slavophilism.)

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Biography Aksakov Stanislavski

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(1817-1860)

Son S. Aksakov, brother Aksakov. Born on March 29 (10 April) 1817 in Novц¦-Aksakovo Buguruslan County Orenburg Province. Childhood years spent in his father's estates (in t.ch. in s.Nadezhino). From 1826 he lived in Moscow, in 1832-1935 he studied at the literary department of Moscow University (prepared for him in a boarding house MP Pogodin). He was a circle NV Stankevich, and in the salons of Moscow became friendly with Nikolai Gogol, M. Schepkin Khomyakov.
.
. The image of the patriarchal, . 'community' Rus, . the sacred character of the historical existence of Russia and Moscow as its symbol reflected in the article Aksakova Semisotletie Moscow (1846), . poem Moscow, . When the drama in Moscow in 1612, . (1848, banned after the first staging of the Maly Theater December 14, 1850),
. He played in the Moscow literary scholar and the collection (1846-1847), Moscow Miscellany (1852), in the magazines 'Moskvityanin' (recruited as a poet VG Belinsky), 'Russian conversation'. Since 1857 an unofficial editor of 'Rumor', not just to shock with their performances in her Moscow aristocratic audience (in t.ch. article is published - the people. Experience of synonyms, where Aksakov, said about half-educated, in his opinion, the nobility: 'In the public dirt in gold, gold in the mud people'). The author of two novels in line with the poetics of E. T. A. Hoffmann (in t.ch. Walter Eisenberg. (Living in a dream), a brief historical sketch of the Zemsky Sobor of articles about Russian epics, Dead Souls, Nikolai Gogol, works of Ivan Turgenev, Dostoevsky, etc.. (this was against 'the St. Petersburg literature' and especially the natural school, calling it 'expanse of mediocrity')

. From the poetic works of Aksakov, . cultivate sustainable romantic motives 'nature' and 'saint of poetry', . became widely known poem My Mariechen too small, . text of which (as amended) set to music by PI Tchaikovsky (Children's song,
. My Lizochek). Known translations Aksakov (in t.ch. of JW Goethe, Schiller, A. Mickiewicz), several dramatic experiences (t.ch. Oleg parody of Constantinople, 1834-1839, Dep. ed. 1858), journalistic review of Russian literature, in t.ch. modern, as well as articles about the ancient life of the Slavs in general and the Russian in particular (1852), A few words about the Russian outlook (1856), Note by Tsar Alexander II on the internal state of Russia (1855, published. 1881), works on Russian grammar.

The main contribution Aksakov Slavophil doctrine - its socio-political theory and the system of aesthetic views. Socio-historical views quite clearly formulated in 1848 in the Voice article from Moscow, written under the influence of revolutionary events in Europe. Condemning the revolution and recognizing its 'perfect strangeness' Russia, . Aksakov seen in European storms result of some kind of politicization of the public life of the West, . 'deification of the Government', . concentration of public interest and focus mainly on politics and government,
. Orthodoxy as Russia, argued Aksakov never deify the government and even looked at the political power as a 'secondary matter'. Political and public relations in general, . on Aksakov, . have for the Russian people of secondary importance, . as a result of historical traditions and features of the national character of his true interests lie entirely in the field of spiritual-religious,
. This 'non' people can harmoniously match only one form of power - Orthodox autocratic monarchy. Relevant Aksakov ideas developed in the note addressed to Alexander II on the internal state of Russia (1855). In defending the ideal of a monarchical state, . Aksakov at the same time, sharply criticized the socio-political situation in autocratic Russia, . wrote about the 'internal ulcers' Russia's life - serfdom and official corruption, . condemned 'the yoke of the state over the land', . which started, . his opinion, . Under Peter I,


. Explaining his understanding of identity in Russian history, . Aksakov turned to the study of literary and historical monuments, . national folklore, . expressed the idea of the absence of the ancient Slavs developed tribal system and the decisive role in their lives, family and community relations, . wrote about the largely peaceful development of the Russian state, . Peter reforms criticized for, . that they broke the organic development of Russian society and violated the age-old tradition of the relationship of land (the people) and government (state),
. An important element Slavophile doctrine - the concept of 'land' and 'state' played a significant role in the Slavophil criticism of the West, . justify special historical path of Russian people, . prefers, . on Aksakov, . 'the way inner truth' (Christian moral unit of social life, . embodied in the peasant commune) - 'outside the truth' (political-legal organization of society of western type),
. Aksakov was an active supporter of the abolition of serfdom and sought to bring the need for reform of the general principles of his theory. So, . with the concept of 'non' is linked to the idea of the inalienable, . sovereign people's rights (the words, . views, . press), . he considered the rights of non-political and therefore not subject to the jurisdiction of the state: 'The State - the unlimited right of action and the law, . land - a right of opinion and expression ',
. In the future, the civil system of Russia, considered Aksakov, a form of cooperation between the state and people must become active in rural churches, which will be presented to all class. At the same time the possibility of constitutional limitations of autocracy they strongly rejected: the constitution - 'carried out by lies and hypocrisy', Republic of - 'the most damaging form of government'. A substantial part of the creative heritage Aksakova devoted to Russian literature. Rejecting equally the concept of 'pure art' and 'naturalism' (Natural School), he admitted that 'nation' main criterion for evaluating art. Aksakov hoped that the current literature, replacing the traditional folk arts, eventually give way to a new 'synthetic' art. In Gogol's famous poem, he saw a prototype of such art, insisting that the 'epic content and still pervades the dead souls, and the ancient poems of Homer.

Aksakov died on the island of Zante (Greece) 7 (19) December 1860.


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