ALEKHIN Alexander( Russian chess champion.)
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Biography ALEKHIN Alexander
Born in Moscow on 19 (31) October 1892 in a noble family. He graduated from the classical gymnasium Polivanova. In 1905 won first prize in the tournament by correspondence, on the magazine 'Chess Review'. Became a member of the Moscow chess circles, played in tournaments in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Dusseldorf, Hamburg, Carlsbad, Stockholm, Berlin, Paris. In 1910 he entered the law faculty of Moscow University in 1911 moved to St. Petersburg, where he became a student at the Imperial College of Law (graduated from the course in May 1914, he obtained the rank of titular counselor and was counted among the Ministry of Justice).
Conducted chess department in the newspaper 'New Era', worked with the magazine "Chess Bulletin ', publication of which was carried by his brother, also a chess player, Alexei Alekhine. Took third place in the international tournament in St. Petersburg in April-May 1914, yielding E. Lasker and J. R. Capablanca. Following the tournament received the title of grandmaster. After the First World War was interned in Mannheim, where he was a tournament chess masters Germanskogo Union, but was soon released from prison and managed by a roundabout way back to Russia. As health (heart disease) Alekhine was not subject to military conscription. Became a member of the Committee to assist clothing and other necessities to the sick and wounded soldiers. In 1916 he was at the front as a commissioner of the Red Cross, has received several awards for bravery. He was twice wounded, was treated at a hospital in Tarnopol. After returning to Moscow was assigned to the legal department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He played sessions with the game in Moscow, Kiev, Odessa and other cities of Russia, including after the October revolution.
In early 1919, Alekhine, who was on tour in Odessa, was arrested. Soon, however, was released and set to work in Odessa provincial executive committee. In August 1919 he moved to Moscow. He studied cinematography at a state school under the guidance of producer VR Gardin. He worked in the military and Sanitation Department in Kharkov, where ill with typhus. In 1920-1921 he worked in the position of investigator of the Moscow Central investigative and research management, . engaged in correspondence with the Foreign Affairs for, . associated with the search of aliens, . disappeared in Russia during the Revolution and Civil War,
. Combine this work with the responsibilities of an interpreter in the Comintern. Do not stop training for chess, has won first place at the first All-Russia Chess Olympiad in 1920.
In 1921, together with his wife, a Swiss citizen, an employee of the Comintern, left Russia via Riga to Berlin, then moved to Paris. In 1921, released in Berlin on his first book of chess life in Soviet Russia, in 1924 published a work My best Party (1908-1923). During 1921-1925 participated in several tournaments in Europe, the USA and Canada. In 1925, won the tournament in Paris, Bern, Baden-Baden. With a phenomenal memory, not only pure chess, conducted simultaneous games, including the blind at dozens of boards. In 1925 he became a doctor of law, a thesis system of imprisonment in China. In 1927 he received French citizenship. In 1929 published two new books - On the way to the supreme chess achievements (1924-1927) and the International Chess Tournament in New York, 1927
. S. Tartakower in 1920, wrote: 'if Morphy was a poet chess, . Steinitz - fighter, . Lasker - philosopher, . Capablanca - miracle mechanic, . then Alekhine, . According to the Russian, . eternally rebellious spirit and samobichuyuschemu, . increasingly affected as a seeker of the truth of chess',
. According to the most Alekhine, in the minds of the master during the game takes place hidden drama, marked by 'constant clash between the creative idea, tends to infinity, and the enemy's desire to refute it'. Alekhine was extinguished revived after decades of domination of positional play B. Steinitz and E. Lasker and 'automaticity' Capablanca TN. combinative style. 'Combination - Alekhine wrote, - the soul of chess'.
Alekhine's main strength, as did Mikhail Botvinnik, 'was Raman vision: he saw the combination, counting the forced options of victims with great ease and accuracy. Alekhine was aware of its combinational power, and it seems to me that in recent years, he sometimes even sacrificing integrity of the Party, to quietly create combinational situation. Alekhine seen combinations where other and had no idea that they are possible '. Another important factor is the following observation Alekhine, who answered to the question 'How can you so quickly do away with their opponents? " so: 'I am at each turn forcing them to think for themselves'. In an effort to expand their understanding of the psychological foundations of the chess struggle, Alekhine studied other games - the first, Chinese chess, bridge.
In 1926, Alekhine was on tour in Uruguay, Brazil and Argentina, where the local Chess Union has received funds for the organization of the match with Capablanca. After a dramatic struggle in Buenos Aires in September - November 1927 won a landslide victory over world champion. Up to 1935 with constant success won at major international tournaments, including the match with E. Bogolyubov in 1929, at the 3rd World Chess Olympiad in Hamburg in 1930, during a world tour in 1932.
In 1935, Alekhine was a challenge to the match for the world championship by M. Euwe, who lost with a difference of one point. Won an overwhelming victory in the rematch in The Hague in December 1937, regaining the world title. Posted in London book Nottingham 1936 (1937) and my best games. 1924-1937 (1939). In 1940 joined the French army, was assigned to military intelligence. After the occupation of France by German troops participated in several tournaments in Salzburg, Munich, Warsaw, Krakow, Prague. Lived in Portugal, then in Czechoslovakia. He worked as a chess columnist in the newspaper 'Pariser Zeitung', where anti-Semitic articles appeared under his signature on the 'Aryan' and 'Jewish' chess, of which he has not really been, and from which he had later publicly refusing the undertaking. In the 1943-1944 Grand chess department in the Russian newspaper 'new word', published in Berlin. In 1944 he moved to Spain, but in the end of 1945 settled in Portugal.
In November 1945 Alekhine was invited to the Christmas tournaments in London and Hastings (UK), but, after failure Euwe, Fine and Denker's play in the tournament if it will participate Alekhine, the invitation was revoked. Alekhin had once again publicly refute the charges of collaboration. In March 1946 Alekhine was invited to the match for the title of world champion Mikhail Botvinnik, who was held in Nottingham in August 1946. Alekhine died (probably poisoned) in Estoril, near Lisbon, March 24, 1946. In 1956 his remains were reburied at the cemetery of Montparnasse in Paris.