Antonello da Messina (Antonello da Messina)( Italian painter)
Comments for Antonello da Messina (Antonello da Messina)
Biography Antonello da Messina (Antonello da Messina)
Sicilian descent, whose work has had a significant impact on the development of early Renaissance painting.
Many details about the life of Antonello lost, doubtful or controversial. However, it is clear, . what, . although he was not introduced to Italy with an oil painting, . as reported earlier sources, . namely Antonello demonstrated its capabilities luminous Venetian painters, . thus initiating the whole direction of, . which was destined to become one of the main roads in the history of Western art,
. Like some other artists of that time, Antonello da Messina paintings combined the innovations of the Italians with the Netherlands tradition of optically precise image detail.
Record 1456 that Antonello was a student at Messina, suggests that he was born no later than 1430. The style of his works by Vasari confirms the message that the teacher was Antonello Neapolitan Kolantonio. Naples is far more experienced the cultural influence of the Iberian Peninsula, France and the Netherlands than Tuscany and Northern Italy. Painting particularly flourished in the environment, familiar with the works of Van Eyck and his followers, a few works which can be found in Neapolitan collections. Antonello was Italian by birth, but on arts education, he largely belonged to the painterly tradition of northern Europe. He was one of the most outstanding portrait painters of his time. Nearly a third of his surviving works - portraits. Typically, the model depicted in close-up head and shoulders, head and shoulders were placed against a dark background. In the foreground is sometimes depicted parapet with attached kartellino (a piece of paper with the inscription); illyuzionisticheskaya graphic quality and accuracy in the transfer of these components indicate their origin niderlandskom. Portrait of a Man (c.. 1474-1475, London, National Gallery) is one of the best portraits of Antonello. Except for the red hats, supplemented peeping dark-red stripe breeches, master limited palette of black, rich brown and the individual strokes of white and solid colors. Although the inner world of the model reveals little, his face radiates energy and intelligence, it is finely modeled chiaroscuro. This play of light in combination with acute drawing of facial expressiveness makes almost sculptural works by Antonello mature period of creativity.
Portraits Antonello attract the audience chamber format and shiny, glossy surface. When these qualities are transferred to the religious paintings, such as in the painting Ecce Homo (Piacenza, Municipal Museum), the type of human suffering becomes unbearable painful. Nude Christ, with a rope around his neck and tears on his face, staring at us. The figure is almost completely fills the field of painting, an interpretation of the plot departs from the iconography of abstraction in the direction of the transfer of physical and psychological reality of the image of Christ that compels us to focus on the meaning of his suffering.
A completely different picture of the mood Maria Annunziata (Palermo, Sicily, National Gallery) also requires the viewer the emotional involvement and internal experiences. The audience seemed to put a space in place of the archangel, which gives a sense of mental complicity. Virgin Mary, sitting at the desk, with one hand holds his blue blanket, and raises the other hand. It is thoughtful and quite calm, its evenly lit, like a sculpture fashioned head emits light on a dark background background.
If there is not even considered by the works of minimal interest to the problem of transfer of space, the other works by Antonello in this regard well ahead of its time. The painting SW. Jerome in his cell (London, National Gallery) depicts the saint, for reading desks. He finished wood cabinet located inside the Gothic hall, the rear wall which cut through the windows of two floors. The image is framed by an arch and a border in the foreground, which are perceived as a proscenium (reception, common in the art of the countries north of the Alps). Bright mustard-colored stone emphasizes the contrast between light and shadow reminiscent of a cave inside the premises. Details - items on the shelves of the cabinet, the birds in the foreground, landscape away - passed with a degree of accuracy, we can achieve only with the application of the liquid oil paint with very small strokes. However, the main advantage of paintings by Antonello concluded not so much in detail, but in the unity of light and air.
In 1475-1476 Antonello lived in Venice, where he wrote a monumental altar of the church of San Casian. Only the central part of his (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum), which shows the Madonna and Child, rising to the throne of the holy, the two sides. The altar is a type of sacra conversazione (holy interview: Madonna and Child with Saints, . being in the same space, . as opposed to the form of a split polyptych) and was reconstructed on the basis of later altars Giovanni Bellini,
. See. also BELLINI.
Antonello demonstrated the possibility of transferring the Venetians in the light of the new technique of painting - oil painting, and since that time the Venetian Colorism based on exploiting the huge potential of oil painting. Works Antonello painted in Venice, characterized by the same conceptual direction, as his earlier work. Pieta (Venice, Museo Correr), heavily worn, even in a damaged condition fills the viewer a feeling of intense compassion. The dead body of Christ keep the lid on the tomb of three angel with pointed wings cleaving the air like. Again the central figure, this close-up, as if pressed against the surface of the painting, this technique makes the viewer acutely empathize with the suffering depicted. The painting SW. Sebastian (Dresden Gallery) Antonello like compete with their Northern Italian contemporaries in skill transfer of linear perspective (as well as in the depiction of heroic nudity). Figure pierced with arrows saint takes on the background of the huge size of cobblestone area. Perspective from the lowest point of vanishing, a fragment of a column in the foreground and sweep deep space promotes the principles of Euclidean geometry in the construction of the composition.