Byron, George Gordon (Byron George Gordon)( One of the great English romantic poets.)
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Biography Byron, George Gordon (Byron George Gordon)
Born January 22, 1788 in London. His mother, Catherine Gordon, a native Scot, was the second wife of Captain D. Byron, whose first wife died, leaving him a daughter, Augusta. The captain died in 1791, having had time to spend blshuyu part of the wife. George Gordon was born with talipes, which is why he has evolved from early childhood morbid, exacerbated by a hysterical disposition mother, grow it in Aberdeen on modest means. In 1798 the boy had inherited from great-grandfather Baron and patrimony Newsted Abby at Nottingham, where he moved with his mother. The boy was working with a tutor, and then he was sent to a private school in Dulwich, and in 1801 - in Harrow.
Autumn 1805 Byron entered Trinity College at Cambridge University, where he met with DK Hobhausom (1786-1869), before the end of the life of his closest friend. In 1806, Byron issued for a narrow circle book of poetry to the case (Fugitive Pieces). A year later, followed by leisure (Hours of Idleness); along with imitative in the collection were promising poems. In 1808 'Edinburgh Review' ridiculed rather presumptuous author's preface to the book, to which Byron answered poisonous lines in satire English Bards and Scotch reviewers (English Bards and Scotch Reviewers, 1809).
In London, Byron got into debt for several thousand pounds. Fleeing from creditors, and, probably in search of new impressions July 2, 1809, he went with Hobhausom in a long journey. They swam to Lisbon, crossed Spain, from Gibraltar, the sea got to Albania, where a visit from the Turkish despot Ali Pasha Tepelenskomu, and proceeded to Athens. There they spent the winter in the house of a widow, whose daughter, Teresa Macri, Byron has sung in the image of the Athenian maidens. In the spring of 1809 on the way to Constantinople Byron swam across the Dardanelles, as many times subsequently boasted. The next winter he again held in Athens
. Byron returned to England in July 1811, he brought with him a manuscript written in Spenserian stanza of the poem's autobiographical, . tale of the sad wanderer, . destined to know the disappointment of sweet hopes and ambitious hopes of his youth and in the journey,
. Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (Child Harold's Pilgrimage), published in March next year, overnight fame name of Byron. His mother had not lived - she died on August 1, 1811, and even a few weeks later came the news of the death of three close friends. February 27, 1812 Byron spoke in the House of Lords with his first speech - against the bill the Tories on the death penalty for the weavers, intentionally breaking the newly invented knitting machines. The success of Childe Harold Byron provided a warm welcome in the circles of the Whigs. He made the acquaintance with T. Moore and C. Rogers and daughter in law was presented to Lord Melbourne Lady Caroline Lamb, who became the mistress of the poet and did not conceal.
Following Childe Harold Byron created a cycle of 'Oriental poems': Gyaur (The Giaour) and Abidosskaya Bride (The Bride of Abydos) - in 1813, Le Corsaire (The Corsair) and Lara (Lara) - 1814. Poems abounded veiled hints autobiographical. Hero Gyaur rush to identify with the author, pogovarivaya that in the East Byron for some time engaged in piracy.
Anabella Milbenk, niece of Lady Melbourne, Byron, and occasionally exchanged letters, in September 1814 he proposed to her, and it was accepted. After January 2, 1815 wedding and honeymoon in Yorkshire is clearly not meant for each other newlyweds settled in London. Spring Byron became acquainted with W. Scott, who has long admired, and together with his friend D. Kinnard went to a subcommittee of the Board Theater 'Drury Lane'.
Desperate to sell Newsted Abby to get even with debt, which reached nearly 30 000 pounds, Byron exasperated and sought oblivion in walking through the theater and drinking parties. Frightened by his wild antics and obvious hints at the relationship with a half-sister Augusta - she came to London to make her company - Lady Byron naively decided that he fell into madness. December 10, 1815 she gave birth to daughter, Augusta Ada Byron, and January 15, 1816, taking with him a baby, moved to Leicestershire to visit parents. A few weeks later it announced that it will not return to her husband. Apparently, her suspicions of incest and homosexual relationships before marrying Byron were confirmed. Byron agreed to a separate residence for the court on April 25 and sailed for Europe. In the summer he rented a villa Diodati in Geneva, where he was a frequent guest of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Here Byron finished the third song of Childe Harold, to develop already familiar motifs - vain ambition, fleeting love, futile search for perfection, has written a prisoner of Chillon (The Prisoner of Chillon) and began Manfred (Manfred). Byron had his short relationship with William Godwin's stepdaughter Claire Clairmont, who lived in the family of Shelley, 12 Jan. 1817 was born on their daughter, Allegra.
September 5, 1816 Byron and Hobhaus went to Italy. In Venice, Byron studied the Armenian language, . Albrizzi Countess visited the theater and its beauty, . in spring 1817, reunited with Hobhausom in Rome, . toured the ancient ruins and graduated from Manfred, . drama in verse on the Faustian theme, . in which his frustration becomes universal scale,
. Returning to Venice, he was on impressions of a trip to Rome wrote a fourth song of Childe Harold - poignant embodiment of the limit of romantic longing. In the summer he met with the 'gentle tigress "Margarita Konya, the wife of a baker. Byron returned to Venice in November, has already written Beppo (Beppo), glittering in the Italian octaves mock-heroic satire on Venetian manners. In June the following year he moved to the Palazzo Mosenido on the Grand Canal, there passionate Margarita Konya reigned on the Rights of the housekeeper. Soon Allegra Byron took the baby under his wing and began a new satire in the spirit of Beppo named Don Juan (Don Juan).
Sale Newsted in autumn 1818 for 94 500 pounds Byron helped to get rid of debt. Having plunged into the sensual pleasures tolsteyuschy that have given long hair, which thrust itself gray hair - so it appeared as the guests of the house. From the debauchery of his love saved the young Countess Therese Gvichchioli. In June 1819, he followed her to Ravenna, and in late summer they came to Venice. In the end, Teresa persuaded to return to an aging spouse, but her pleas again led Byron to Ravenna in January 1820. He settled in the Palazzo Gvichchioli, which brought and Allegro. Teresa's father, Count Gamba, persuaded the Pope permission for her daughter to live separately from her husband.
Stay in Ravenna, was for Byron unprecedentedly productive: he wrote a new song of Don Juan, The Prophecy of Dante (The Prophecy of Dante), historical drama in verse Fal'ero Marino (Marino Faliero), translated the poem Pulci Big L. Morganti. Through Count Gamba and his son Pietro it during the autumn and winter activity he participated in a conspiracy of the Carbonari, the members of a secret political movement against the tyranny of the Austrian. In the midst of a conspiracy Byron created a drama in verse Sardanapalus (Sardanapalus) - on idle voluptuaries, whom the circumstances of moving the noble act. The threat of political upheaval has become one of the reasons that led its March 1, 1821 put Allegra in a monastic school in Bagnacavallo.
After the defeat of the uprising father and son Gamba expelled from Ravenna. In July, Teresa had to follow them to Florence. Byron, Shelley persuaded to come to him and the Gambia in Pisa. Prior to his departure from Ravenna (in October), Byron wrote his most savage satire and unusual vision of the court (The Vision of Judgment), a parody of the poem by poet laureate R. Southey, glorifying the King George III. Byron also completed a drama in verse Kain (Cain), to put it a skeptical interpretation of biblical scenes.
In Pisa with Byron at the Casa Lafranchi going circle of friends Shelley. In January 1822 she died mother-in-law of Byron, Lady Noel, unsubscribed him in his will бё 6000 on condition that he would take the name of Noel. A heavy blow for him was the death of Allegra in April. Fight with the dragoons, which have unwittingly involved in Pisa, he and his friends, forced the authorities to deprive the Tuscan Gamba political asylum. In May, with Byron and Teresa moved to a villa near Livorno.
July 1 to join Byron and Shelley L. Hunt, together with them to edit a short-lived journal 'Liberal'. A few days later Shelley drowned, and the care of Byron were Hunt, his sick wife and six unruly children. In September, Byron moved to Genoa and began living in the same house with both Gamba. Khanty arrived followed and settled in Mary Shelley. Byron returned to work on Don Juan, and by May 1823 completed the 16 th song. He chose the heroes of the legendary seducer and turned it into an innocent simpleton, . who harass women, but the bitter experience of life, . that nature, . world view and actions still remains normal, . reasonable man in an absurd world daft,
. Byron has consistently pursued through a series of adventures Juan, . something funny, . touchingly, . - From 'platonic' seduction of the hero in Spain before the love-idyll on the Greek island, . from slavery to the position in the harem favorite of Catherine the Great, . and leaves him entangled in intrigue in the English countryside mansion,
. Byron nursed an ambitious plan to bring its picaresque novel in verse 50, if not more songs, but managed to finish only 16 and fourteen stanzas of songs 17. In Don Juan recreated a full range of feelings, humorous, cynical, sometimes bitter satire tear the mask from hypocrisy and pretense.
Exhausted from aimless existence, longing for active work, Byron jumped at the offer of the London Greek Committee to help Greece in the war for independence. 15 July 1823 he departed from Genoa, along with P. Gamba and E.Dzh.Treloni. Nearly four months he spent on the island of Cephalonia, waiting for instructions from the Committee. Byron gave the money to equip the Greek fleet and in early January 1824 joined the prince in Mavrokordatosu Missolungi. He took over command of the detachment suliotov (Greek-Albanian), which paid the allowance. Awakening strife among the Greeks and their greed, jaded disease, Byron died of fever April 19, 1824.