Arthur James Balfour (Balfour Arthur James)( English statesman.)
Comments for Arthur James Balfour (Balfour Arthur James)
Biography Arthur James Balfour (Balfour Arthur James)
Born July 25, 1848 in Uittingeme (Scotland). He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge University. In 1874 became a member of the House of Commons from the Conservative Party. At the Berlin Congress in 1878 acted as secretary to his uncle, the Minister for Foreign Affairs Lord Salisbury. In 1886 joined the Government as Minister of State for Scotland, in 1887-1891 was Minister of Ireland. In 1891 - First Lord of the Treasury and leader of the House of Commons. In 1902 succeeded Lord Salisbury as Prime Minister and head of the Conservative Party. Undertaking reforms in education and defense, was one of the initiators of the Anglo-Japanese alliance (1902), which ended the policy of 'splendid isolation', has made an alliance between Britain and France - the basis antigermanskoy Coalition. Party split in 1903 on the tariff and customs reform in the spirit of protectionism undermined the Government's position. At the end of 1905 Balfour resigned, in the parliamentary elections in December 1905 the Conservatives were defeated.
In 1910-1911 Balfour opposed home rule for Ireland, and limiting the powers of the House of Lords, but not succeeded. In November 1911 was forced to leave the post of leader of the Conservative Party. During the First World War entered a coalition government, occupying the post of Minister of Marine, in 1916-1919 he was Minister of Foreign Affairs, is actively opposed to pacifism, keeping policies formulated by Lloyd George 'crushing blow'. In April 1917, led the mission to the United States, whose purpose was to coordinate military operations in Europe. In November the same year was issued the Balfour Declaration of British policy in Palestine, . which read, . that the British government 'refers favorably to the establishment in Palestine of a national home (national home) for the Jewish people and will spare no effort, . to facilitate the achievement of this goal ',
. In 1920 Balfour represented Britain at the League of Nations Assembly, and in 1921-1922 - at the Washington Conference on limiting naval armaments and the Pacific and Far East Issues. In 1922 he became a Knight of the Garter, and received the title of Count Balfurskogo. In 1926 led the drafting of a so-called. 'report Balfour' - the conclusions of the imperial conference on self Dominion of Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and the Irish Free State, which were included in the text of the Statute of Westminster (1931).
Throughout his life, Balfour felt a deep interest in philosophy and even wrote several works in this area. In 1921-1928 was president of the British Academy. Among his works - Protection of philosophical doubts (Defence of Philosophic Doubt, 1879), Foundations of Faith (The Foundations of Belief, 1895), Theism and Humanism (Theism and Humanism, 1915). Balfour died in Woking (England) 19 March 1930.