Adolf Bastian (Bastian Adolf)( German ethnologist.)
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Biography Adolf Bastian (Bastian Adolf)
Born June 26, 1826 in Bremen. The first of many voyages made in 1850 in Australia as a ship's doctor. From that time until 1903, and traveled the world - visited the Middle East, on both sides of the Pacific Ocean on the west coast of Africa, South and East Asia. The main publication of the results of these trips was the six-volume work The peoples of East Asia (Die Vlker des stlichen Asien, 1866-1871). Together with Rudolf Virchow Bastian organized in Berlin in 1869, Society of anthropology, and in 1870 - Society for Research in Central Africa. When in 1886 in Berlin was built by the Royal Ethnographic Museum (later received the name of the Museum of Ethnology), became its first director.
Bastian claimed that the similarity of customs in different parts of the world is a product of the same forms of thinking, which he called 'elementary ideas'. In the early stages of development of society the basic ideas are formed as a 'folk concept' under the influence of geographical environment, later mutating under the influence of historical factors. The presentation of this concept can be found in the Labor Ethnic basic ideas in the doctrine of man (Ethnische Elementargedanken in der Lehre von Menschen, 1895). Among other works Bastian should be noted the book in the history of Man (Der Mensch in der Geschichte, 1860). Bastian died in Port-of-Spain (Trinidad) 2 February 1905.