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BATAILLE, Georges (Bataille Georges)

( French writer and philosopher)

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Biography BATAILLE, Georges (Bataille Georges)

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(1897-1962)
. In 1940-1950 years - one of the leaders of leftist intellectuals in France, the author of books on philosophy, religion, economy, characteristic of M. Heidegger - 'the brightest minds in France'
.
Born September 10, 1897 in Biyome. In 1901-1913 he studied at the Lyceum in Reims. In 1914 he adopted Catholicism. In 1915 he graduated from college d'Eperney, and in 1918 entered the Ecole de Shart in Paris, where in 1922 he defended his thesis order of chivalry, verse 13 in the story. and was qualified archivist palaeographer. In the same year he joined the Paris National Library, where he worked until 1942. In the early 1920's in Paris, a lot of contact with Leo Shestov; under his influence began to read Dostoyevsky, Kierkegaard, Pascal, Plato, took part in a French translation of the book Shestov Welcome to the teachings of gr. Tolstoy and Friedrich Nietzsche (1925). In addition to these thinkers, he was interested in Nietzsche, Freud, de Sade, and later - Hegel and Marx, the core of his vision was Hegelianism, rethinking from the standpoint Nietzscheanism and psychoanalysis. Since mid-1920 Bataille published articles in journals 'Aretuza' ( 'Arthuse'), 'Documents' ( 'Documents'), specializing in art history, archeology, ethnography. In 1931, met with Boris and Souvarine joined the Democratic Communist Circle (dissolved in 1934). At the same time published a series of articles in the journal 'Social criticism' ( 'La critique sociale'): Critique of the foundations of the Hegelian dialectic (in collaboration with Raymond Queneau, . 1932; article carried the idea of the need to enrich the Marxist dialectic through the inclusion of Freud's psychoanalysis and the sociology of Durkheim and Mauss); Problem State (1933) (against the revolutionary optimism, . fascist totalitarian state and the dictatorship of socialism), The psychological structure of fascism,
. The first in France, Bataille applied psychoanalytic techniques to the analysis of political problems

. In 1931 Bataille was involved in the workshop of Alexander KoyrцL in the School of Higher Studies, . and in 1934 - in the workshop of Alexander Kojeve, . where, in collaboration with R. Keno, . Aron, . M.Merlo-Ponty, . Eric Weil, . Andre Breton and others worked on the translation and commentaries of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit (Seminar in force until 1939),
. In 1935 took part in a panel organized by J. Lacan.

In 1935 became one of the initiators of the movement 'Counterattack' ( 'Contre-Attaque'), brought together leftist intellectuals of various creative orientations, including the Surrealists. The main slogans of the movement were antinatsionalizm, anti-capitalism, anti-parliamentarism, even anti-democrat, and the main goal - the replacement of the myths of fascism myths of moral and sexual revolution. The main sources of inspiration 'counterattack' were works of the Marquis de Sade, Fourier, Nietzsche (the movement disintegrated in 1936). Members of the movement participated in street demonstrations to protest against the actions of nationalist organization 'Action Franц¬aise'. During this period, Bataille, and close to it members of the movement accused of pro-fascist sentiments, . as one of the papers drawn up by them 'Undiplomatic rudeness' Hitler was treated as a positive alternative to 'slyuntyaystva' politicians and diplomats,
.

In 1936 Bataille began organizing a secret society 'Asefal' ( 'Acphale'), while the magazine with the same name. The first issue was released in 1936, the company was founded in 1937 (its members were Klossowski, Shawi, Shannon and others, one of the rules of society - not to shake hands with anti-Semites). In the same year, Bataille was one of the organizers of the sociological College, . one of whose tasks was to develop a sociology of 'sacred', . able to complement the Marxist analysis of the study of irrational facts of social life, . study of social life in those forms, . which detects the presence of 'sacred',
. In the same period Bataille Society organized a collective psychology, aimed at studying the role of psychological, including the unconscious factors in the social life. At the forefront of Bataille to the fore the problem of death as the basis of social relationships (death - 'the emotional element, . giving the absolute value of co-existence '), . guilt (in 1944 the publication of his book The guilty - Le coupable), . sin, . evil, . inner experience (the book Inner Experience - L'exprience intrieure - published in 1943),


. In 1946 at the initiative of Bataille began publishing the magazine 'criticism' ( 'Critique'), . where he published articles morally Sociology, . Secret Garden, . On the stories of Hiroshima residents, . The transition from animal to man and the birth of art, . Communism and Stalinism, . Garden (1740-1814), etc.,
. During these years later he had written the following works: On Nietzsche (Sur Nietzsche, 1945), the method of meditation ( 'Mthode de mditation', 1947), Literature and Evil (La littrature et le mal, 1957), eroticism ( 'L' rotisme, 1957 '), etc.. In 1952 Bataille was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor.

Bataille died in Paris on 8 July 1962.





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BATAILLE, Georges (Bataille Georges), photo, biography BATAILLE, Georges (Bataille Georges)  French writer and philosopher, photo, biography
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