BATOR Stephen (Istvan)( Prince of Transylvania (1571-1575) and King of Poland (1575-1586).)
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Biography BATOR Stephen (Istvan)
Son of Stefan Batory, governor of Transylvania, Stefan was born in Zhiladishomlo (sovr. Simleu Silvani, Romania), September 27, 1533, studied at the University of Padua. After spending his early years at the court of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I, Stephen fought under the authority of the King of the eastern part of Hungary Janos Zhigmonta Szapolyai. Being a prisoner of the Germans, Stefan 3 years deeply involved sciences. In 1571 he was elected the first Prince of Transylvania (Siebenbiirgen). The victory over rival, . puppet Maximilian II Gaspar Bekeshev, . prompted the Polish nobility in the Diet in Jд?drzejцЁw January 18, 1576 to recognize the illegal election of the Senate of the Polish throne of the Maximilian and elect instead Stefan, . in-law of the late King of Poland Sigismund I,
. Senate rebelled against the nobility seized Krakow, where the April 23, 1576 and arrived Stefan. During the coronation was followed by marriage to 50-year-old Princess Anne, sister of Sigismund II Augustus, last king of Poland from the Jagiellonian
. Stephen left his younger brother Krystof manage Transylvania, . while he spent most of the forces to implement a bold plan, . which if successful would lead to the elimination of Turkish rule in Europe and the unification of Hungary and Transylvania,
. Capturing the defiant Gdansk on Dec. 16, 1577 and the victory over domestic opposition allowed Stephanou, reinforcing the rear, take three successful campaigns against Ivan the Terrible, the Russian from the Baltic to push and force the king to give Polotsk and Livonia. After accession to the throne of Emperor Rudolf II difficult (for Maximilian II) improved relations with the Habsburgs, it is hoped that with the help of Pope Stephen will be able to achieve their neutrality. All this, with a minimum of malevolent interference from the Russian side, could unleash Stephanou hands for an active struggle with the Ottoman Empire. This ambitious plan was not carried out in connection with the death of Stephen's on Dec. 12, 1586.
Stephen spent to reform the judicial system in Poland, founded the university in Vilnius, strengthened the position of the Jesuits in Poland. His son, Gabor was prince of Transylvania in 1608-1613, but was expelled for his brutality and killed. Sinister figure was an Elizabeth Bц¦thory (from another echedskoy, branches of the family, died in 1614), notorious of which was brought terrible beauty treatments. It is believed that before her disrobed and imprisoned, she managed to kill the 80 girls in the blood that used to bathe.