BEKETOV ST. FOMA (Becket St. Thomas)( English Chancellor and the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reign of Henry II)
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Biography BEKETOV ST. FOMA (Becket St. Thomas)
Imperious and insubordinate Becket came into confrontation with Henry on many issues and eventually was killed by the will of the king, that gave him from the church of the martyr's crown as the sufferer in the resistance of the Church temporal power. Becket, whom his contemporaries called Thomas of London, was born in London. His father Gilbert, who came from the knights of Normandy, later became a successful London merchant and his mother, a native of Cana, was also from Normandy. Ten-Thomas was sent to convent school, Merton (now London), then he was educated in schools in London and Paris.
Returning from Paris at the age of 21-year, Becket became a notary. He then engaged in commerce until 1142, when Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury, brought him into their surroundings. After participating in the visit of Archbishop in Rome in 1143 Thomas was sent to study canon law at Bologna and Okserr. Exterior has a beautiful young man - tall, pale, thin, dark, Becket even then attracted the attention of lively temperament, wonderfully sharp eyesight and hearing and an extraordinary memory. The roots of his deep piety and charity to the poor most often traced back to the mother and child quarrels with his father caused him stuttering. Comrades young Becket felt his generous, highly enjoyable, seeking to please people and very ambitious man.
Gradually the influence of Becket surrounded Theobald grew. In 1148 he accompanied the archbishop of the cathedral at Reims. Soon he himself began to entrust important diplomatic mission, . and in 1152 he showed himself, . acting as a representative of the English primate in the papal curia, . where he obtained a papal message, . which prohibits the coronation of the son of King Stephen, . Eustace,
. This earned him the gratitude of Henry of Anjou, a rival Eustace. In 1154, when Henry became king as Henry II, Becket consecrated a deacon and appointed archdeacon of Canterbury. The following year, Henry appointed Becket Chancellor of England, the post he held for seven years. Becket was also a teacher of the heir to the throne of Henry, using his influence and charm in the two roles to enhance the value of the post of Chancellor. Eventually he reached the huge political and personal influence on the entire royal family Angevinov (ie. Anjou dynasty).
In 1158 Becket led the embassy in Paris, where he had successfully negotiated the marriage of Prince Henry and the eldest daughter of French King Louis VII. Percentages of church revenues, he maintained the king in his wars, in 1159 helped to organize a campaign against Toulouse. Becket was the author of the draft treaty, concluded after the war ended in May 1160.
In 1162, after the death of Archbishop Theobald, Becket became Archbishop of Canterbury. Since he was a deacon, before his ascension to the chair was ordained to the priesthood. Henry II, probably saw in his Chancellor of the supreme instrument of control over the diocese of England. However, less than a year, as Becket opposed the royal taxes at the council in Woodstock in July 1163, and protested against the interference of secular authorities in church affairs at the council held by Pope Alexander III in Tours. Under strong pressure from the Archbishop agreed to take orders Clarendon (January 1164), which further infringe upon the rights of the clergy. Regulation provides that an appeal to Rome would be limited, royal officials can attend the meetings of the ecclesiastical courts, and the clerics soon after the conviction would be subject to civil jurisdiction. After the Pope refused to approve these decisions, Becket changed the earlier decision and did not sign them.
Collision Becket with Henry in Clarendon was the apotheosis of his confrontation with the king, after which he made two unsuccessful attempts to escape from England. Winter 1164 Becket eventually managed to flee to France. He met with the pope in Sens and gain his support against Henry, but the constraints facing the pope himself, did not give him an opportunity to assist Becket to return to England. Two years Becket lived in the Cistercian Abbey in Pontin (Burgundy), but then the monks expelled under pressure from Henry's archbishop. The last four years of exile Becket held in the Abbey of St.. Colombo Sens.
In 1166 Becket took the Pope's authority for members of the royal council of excommunication from the Church of Henry. In addition, he began to denounce supporters of the King of England bishops. June 14, 1170 Henry broke the traditional rights of the Archbishop of Canterbury, authorizing the coronation of Prince Henry the Archbishop of York. Pope Alexander III under the threat of imposing interdict on England forced Henry formally reconciled with Becket in Fretevale (near Vendц¦me) 22 July. But soon the truce was violated because Becket required to publish the pope's message condemning Clarendon regulations, as well as to impeach the Bishops of London, Salisbury and York, keep to the side of King. Returning to England Becket was given a rapturous reception. In early December, he triumphantly entered in Canterbury
. Reported, . when Henry, . who was then in Normandy, . heard, . returned to the Archbishop of Canterbury does not repentant, . he put something like this: 'Yes, save anyone from me this Becket a traitor? " Four knights of his entourage, . Reginald Fittsurs, . William de Tracy, . Hugh de Morville and Richard le Bret, . went to England, . arrived in Canterbury on Dec. 29, 1170, and killed him, . treason,
The murder provoked a storm of protest throughout the Christian world and forced Henry to suspend offensive on religious privileges. In 1174 at the tomb of Becket, he made a public confession. Soon Becket's tomb became a place of worship. Becket was canonized in 1173, and the day of his death (Dec. 29) was in the church calendar feast of St.. Thomas. When Henry VIII cancer has been dismantled, and the name of Becket has ceased to be mentioned in the churches.