BELLINI, Giovanni (Giovanni Bellini)( Outstanding artist of the Renaissance)
Comments for BELLINI, Giovanni (Giovanni Bellini)
Biography BELLINI, Giovanni (Giovanni Bellini)
(ca. 1430-1516), younger brother Gentile, nicknamed Dzhambellino (Giambellino) founder of a new pictorial tradition, in which the main role for color and light.
Despite the loud glory of the artist, about his life very little is known. Few of his paintings are dated, but the fact that he often sought the help of students, hinders the attribution of works. Decisive role in shaping the creative influence of Giovanni Bellini played his father, as well as the artistic medium of Padua 1440-ies, where at that time worked by Jacopo, and especially the Florentine sculptor Donatello. From the art of Donatello and Andrea Mantegna (the latter was almost a contemporary of Giovanni Bellini, and in 1453 married his sister), the artist drew the rigidity and linearity of his early style, the interest in linear perspective and Archeology.
This strict style distinguishes the work of Padua period of creativity Giovanni Bellini, his characteristic example is the picture of Madonna, worshiping the Christ Child (c.. 1455, New York, Metropolitan). It is one of the first in a series of numerous works of the painter of this subject. Virgin prays to his sleeping son. Parapet, on which the baby symbolizes the throne and the coffin, ie. future sacrifice of Christ on the cross. During this period the art of Giovanni Bellini's painting style was similar to the style of Andrea Mantegna, with its emphatic sculptural forms and the lack of interest in the nuances of the transfer invoice.
The appearance of the characters takes a tragic tension in the painting Lamentation (c.. 1470, Milan, Brera Gallery). Three figures, placed behind the parapet, are depicted as if they are very close to the surface of the painting, and their pallid faces and muted colors drapery almost monochrome. Leaden sky serves as a backdrop for frozen in deep mourning figures. Facial expressions and gestures of the characters are multi-valued. The image force pattern is understatement - reception characteristic of Giovanni Bellini.
Around the same time, Bellini and Mantegna painted Agony in the Garden (probably in early 1460-ies, both - in the National Gallery in London). At the core of works of both authors is drawing from the album by Jacopo Bellini. Fabrics are so similar that the question arises: if there were between their authors a kind of artistic competition? In both compositions praying before incarceration Christ is depicted in a landscape. It seems that in a painting by Mantegna no air, and all hard surfaces, and curves of forms reminiscent of a strained metal strings. Host of angels holding the instruments of the Passion, soars on absolutely palpable cloud. In this paper, Giovanni Bellini, all the contours relaxed warm glow of dawn. Instead of heavy host of angels with him there is only one - a small translucent figure, the rising sun is also a nimbus of Christ.
C. 1480 Bellini wrote the big picture Sv. Francis (New York, Frick Collection). Left bathed in the light like a laurel tree inclined to St.. Francis. The main character is inside the picture of the landscape, rather than on its background, nature here is testimony to the mysteries of the Divine Creation.
In 1475-1476, visited Venice, Antonello da Messina, combined in his work the past achievements of the Italian and Northern paintings. It is believed that he had a decisive influence on Giovanni Bellini, under his influence, the master turned to oil painting, which has much greater capabilities in the transmission of light and color. However, interest Bellini to coloristic and lighting effects could occur earlier under the influence of Piero della Francesca and other masters. For more earlier time are his experiments with a mixed technique of oil tempera -. It remains unclear, . what is the chronological relationship between the two altarpiece new type sacra conversazione (holy interview - Arrangement, . in the center of which depicted the Virgin Mary with Child, . and on the sides of the saints), . one of which was written by Giovanni Bellini, for the church of San Giobbe, . other - Antonello da Messina for the church of San Cassiano (partially preserved),
It is difficult to say which of the two artists created the altarpiece of the first type, in later songs such as sacra conversazione were central to the work of Giovanni Bellini. Altar of San Giobbe (Venice, Gallerie dell'Accademia) of the same name by the church in Venice, dating from the late 1470-ies. Madonna and Child seated on a throne, placed in the apse of the church, on either side of her face, six saints, among which are half-naked figure of St. Job and St.. Sebastian defense against plague. At the foot of the throne three angels playing musical instruments saints immersed in prayer and pious meditation. The scene is presented in an easy angle upward. The space of painting is an illusion continues the real interior space - the effect, . produced illyuzionisticheski written architecture background, . in which the repeated motifs ornament carved stone frame image, . preserved until now in the church itself,
. In the picture, there are no actions, and her charm - in a warm, soft light, which connects and unites all of the works in an integral whole, in a kind of spiritual space.
In 1488 Bellini wrote a little triptych sacra conversazione for the Franciscan church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice. For a richly decorated architectural gilded frame shows apse and two adjoining rooms. The Virgin sits on a high throne in front of the mosaic apse, at the foot of the throne two angels playing music, on the sides of two saints. The painting dominates contemplative mood. This is - one of the first works of Bellini, written only oil.
Altar of San Dzakkariya in the homonymous church in Venice dates back to 1505, and is one of the best works of Bellini in this genre. The figures of saints are facing to the viewer, placed in wide, open space, the soft light from the upper left corner, brings together the interior and visible from both sides landscape. Sfumato (light haze) wraps all surfaces, shading the bearded faces of the saints, and these two extreme images seem stronger and calm in contrast to a more shapely figure of young holy women, whose views are addressed to the Virgin and Child. Only the sound of angelic music break the silence of the world, where 'life is understood as a kind of vslushivanie', as the famous art critic 19. Walter Pater on the painting student Bellini - Giorgione.
Along with the great altar compositions intended to decorate churches, Giovanni Bellini, from 1450-ies wrote images of the Virgin and Child on private orders. In the painting Madonna in the Meadow (1505, London, National Gallery) and pose a deadly pallor of her baby sleeping arrangement reminiscent of the iconography of Lamentation, in which the Virgin holds in her lap the dead Christ. Perfect and orderly world is flooded with a clear autumn light. The constancy and internal equilibrium of the world emphasizes the composition of the figures of the Virgin and Child. Landscape construction tending to long-range plan parallel horizontal stripes. Balanced composition anticipates the paintings by Nicolas Poussin or, rather, Claude Lorrain, whose constructive logic of constructing space softened by shining light.
Throughout his work by Giovanni Bellini painted portraits. Typically, this is the image of young people. Overall portraits Bellini include more study of the structure of the person depicted, . than the study of his psychology, . is quite consistent with the tastes of the Venetian patricians: too strong identity appeared to be unsuitable for human, . located on public service,
. Not a typical example for Bellini's work in this genre - Portrait of Doge Leonardo Loredan (ca. 1501, London, National Gallery). Doge depicted bust, for a low parapet, his face like a squeezed into the narrow framework of embroidered hats and capes. However, thanks to the warm tones it seems almost alive. Parapet closes the hand of Leonardo Loredan and seemed to exclude the possibility of direct contact between the model and the spectator.
Bellini was not only the author of the compositions on religious subjects. From his father and brother, he inherited his interest in literature and fine arts of antiquity, as evidenced by emerging from his studio paintings on allegorical themes and images of episodes from Roman history. One of the last and most famous works of the artist - Feast of the Gods (1514, Washington, National Gallery). This is the first of the paintings on mythological subjects, created by order Alfonso d'Este for alabaster cabinet in his castle in Ferrara. The plot goes back to the picture Metamorphoses of Ovid. Olympic feast among lush vegetation (landscape was rewritten after the death of Bellini, Titian). Octogenarian artist, has written for his life a great number of paintings on religious themes, he knew the way and in the ancient world of sensual pleasures, so brilliantly sung by two of his famous students - Giorgione and Titian.