Berck, Edmund (Burke Edmund)( English statesman, orator and political thinker, best known for his philosophy of conservatism.)
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Biography Berck, Edmund (Burke Edmund)
Born in Dublin, 12 January 1729 in a family court attorney, a Protestant and his mother Burke professed Roman Catholic faith. He was educated in the spirit of Protestantism. He was educated at Ballitorskom boarding school, and then at Trinity College in Dublin. Originally intended to go to court line and in 1750 moved to London to go to school barristers 'Middle Temple'.
On the first years of stay in England, Burke, little is known. We know that he has lost interest in law, decided not to return to Ireland, and devoted himself to literary work. His first essay, In Defense of Natural Society (A Vindication of Natural Society, 1756), was a parody of the works of Viscount Bolingbroke, however, stood out for the last posthumously published essay. Burke wanted to show that thoughts Bolingbroke on natural religion are superficial and applying them to political issues lead to absurd consequences. An essay is an important milestone in the development of Burke as a writer and thinker, but in itself of little interest.
A philosophical study of the origin of our ideas about high and excellent (A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, 1757) - more serious work still attracts the attention of aestheticians. At one time it made an impression on Diderot, Kant, and GE Lessing and the author has created a reputation among the literati, but also played an important role in his political career.
Burke's most significant achievement in these years was the issue, together with publisher Robert Dodsli, 'Annual Register' ( 'Annual Register', 1758). Burke has never admitted publicly, that is the editor of this magazine, however, in all likelihood, wrote most of the articles placed in it, including the well-known articles on the history of. He was engaged in the magazine until 1765, then for the case come from other writers, and today it is difficult to say with certainty exactly which articles belong Burke, and what - other authors. According to some reports, he remained a 'major conductor' until 1780, as well as five other authors, whose identity could be established were his pupils, there is no doubt that he continued to influence the content of the yearbook throughout their lives.
Got into politics, Burke did not immediately abandoned the literary ambitions. But his writings almost no earnings, in addition, in 1757 Burke married Jane Mary Nugent, and soon became the father of two sons. So in 1759 he joined the personal secretary to William Gerard Hamilton. When Hamilton became the Chief Secretary of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Burke had to spend the winter in 1761 and 1763 in Dublin, where he gained first political experience. In 1765 followed bitter quarrel with Hamilton. In thirty-seven years, Burke was gone, and his income dropped to 100 pounds per year, which he received while working on the annual register. Nevertheless, he took without the enthusiasm of the offer to become private secretary to the young Marquis Rokingema, who in July 1765 became the first lord of the Treasury (in fact, the Prime Minister). Since that time began the political career of Burke. At the end of 1765 with the help of graph Verney, he became a member of the House of Commons from the county Uendover. His first speech in the beginning of 1766 had extraordinary success. A few weeks Burke earned a reputation as one of the leading parliamentary politicians.
Rockingham resigned in July 1766, but remained leader of the influential group of TN. 'Whig Rokingema', in opposition during the next sixteen years. Burke spoke on behalf of the group in parliament, as well as in his writings. The basis of its impact - success as a speaker. Although not a sense of tact and flexibility inherent in the great masters of rhetoric, Burke nonetheless sought to obtain full information about the issues being discussed, was able to streamline many of the material and knew how to entertain the audience. Reputation of a member of Parliament about the same total number of his speeches. For twenty-eight years in the House of Commons, Burke has always been among the two or three most popular speakers.
In addition, Burke has served his party as the author of pamphlets and speeches, coming out in print. The first success in this field, he won a pamphlet Thoughts on the cause of this discontent (Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents, 1770) - Declaration of Political Principles Whig Rokingema. This document contains the well-known definition of a political party and the protection of its role in public governance. All the talk about 'double room' and in general on the activities of 'Friends of the King', as they called politicians, under the control of George III, the historians of the twentieth century saw as unrealistic.
The first two fully published speech, Burke had focused on Colonies: On Taxation in America (On American Taxation, delivered in April 1774 and publ. in 1775) and reconciliation with the colonies (On Moving His Resolutions for Conciliation with the Colonies, delivered and publ. spring 1775). The same theme was discussed in his famous letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol on the situation in America (A Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol, on the Affairs of America, 1777). Burke's arguments about America were pragmatic and conservative. The problem, in his view, was not how to resolve the conflict with the colonies on the 'right to tax' or 'representation', and how to keep the colonies in subjection to the UK. This can be done, he believed, only by studying features of local political life and accordingly building a political line. England, wrote Burke, received a lot of trade with America, and she will receive no less, even if you do not take it with a single shilling in the form of taxes. This political philosophy has not been able to persuade the British Parliament at that time, although 19 and 20 centuries. many researchers have admired the sagacity Burke.
Activity Burke in Parliament, his interest in commerce and disagreement with government policy in respect of the colonies was impressed by the merchants of Bristol, who in 1774 chose him as their representative in the House of Commons. Burke was flattered to be a member of Parliament from the second largest English city, and he sought to measure the forces to carry out voters'-traders. However, his eagerness to please bristoltsam stopped when he began to express ideas about the need to loosen the rules of trade with Ireland, the reform of insolvency laws and the tolerance to Catholics. Burke lost his seat in Parliament from Bristol in 1780 and later represented the District of Malton, who was under the control of Lord Rokingema and the Earl Fitzwilliam.
Damage relations with Bristol does not damage the reputation of Burke, which has reached unprecedented heights in recent years, the American Revolution. Those were years of close collaboration with Charles James Fox - together they waged unceasing war of words with the Prime Minister Lord North. Burke also played an important role in organizing the count's petitions 1779 and 1780 and in the movement for economic reform designed primarily to limit the power of the King and the extent of its influence on parliament. The opposition, rarely succeed, yet different activity and was able to force myself to listen.
Burke's private life in these years also can not be called a failure. He continues to communicate with Samuel Johnson, Oliver Goldsmith, David Garrick and Joshua Reynolds, a friend of scholars and artists, supports Fanny Burney and opens the George Crabbe. His family life is extremely happy. Manor in Beaconsfield was for him a source of joy. He loved and leisure guests from politics, engaged in agricultural work.
After 16 years in opposition grouping Rokingema in March 1782 came to power. Burke was not appointed to the Cabinet and the principal military Treasurer. This post was much less profitable than before the reforms, which Burke himself had contributed. But even the few that gave the presidency was lost with the death Rokingema in July 1782. Burke's position in the party was shaken. He supported Fox in his steps towards the retirement of the Government of Lord Shelburne, and joined the unsuccessful union with Lord North, which, however, allowed him to briefly regain the post of treasurer of the military.
When George III and William Pitt the Younger in 1784 succeeded in the fight with the coalition, Burke returned to the ranks of the opposition. Now Fox was real, and the Duke of Portland - the nominal head of the party, in which Burke gradually lost influence. His main efforts in the 1780's were directed to investigate the activities of the East India Company, which led to the resignation in 1787 the Governor-General of Bengal, Warren Hastings, and lasted seven years of litigation. Sam Burke said it many times that 'Indian' works - the main cause of his life. However, modern historians, this stage of his political activity has, to a lesser extent than its other aspects. It is recognized that Burke was extremely unfair to Hastings. But the time to dictate its terms. It was necessary to draw public attention to the moral problems of imperial rule, and only require the resignation could somehow contribute to the reform. And if the British rule in India in the 19. become more scrupulous than 18. then that's part merit of Burke.
In the midst of the Indian campaign in all growth rose another, more important policy issues concerning the French Revolution of 1789. One of the first Burke felt the vital importance of events in France. In November, 1790, . sympathy when the British were still on the side of the revolutionaries, . published his Reflections on the Revolution in France (Reflections on the Revolution in France), . pamphlet of more than 400 pages, . which examines the major political principles of the revolution,
. Burke was poorly informed about what was happening in France in any case, his concern first and foremost the impact of 'French principles' for British nationals.
Burke saw the danger of revolution in its blind adherence to theory, the preference for the abstract rights of traditional institutions and customs, in its contempt for the experience. Sam Burke believed in the classical tradition, reaching from Aristotle, and in the Christian tradition, the representative believed that the British theologian Richard Hooker. Burke's views can hardly be called a systematic pragmatism, but he is deeply mistrustful of 'metaphysical speculations' inexperienced statesmen. Developing the ideas of his earlier writings and speeches about America and even earlier work in the protection of the natural society, . Burke opposed the principles of the Age of Reason - or at least against the arrogance of those, . who believed, . that with the help of reason can penetrate the last secrets of life,
. He believed that only the action of divine providence can explain the great historical changes.
Reflections fulfilled its immediate task, and attracted public interest in the ideas and events of the French Revolution. The book caused much controversy and responses, among which the most famous pamphlet by Thomas Paine Human Rights (1791-1792). However, the value of Burke's book does not stop. Despite the roughness of style and factual errors, reflections are the most important writing Burke. In its most fully expressed in the philosophy of conservatism, which is the contribution of Burke in the world political thought. Reflections and - most important victory won by his eloquence.
The book has caused an unusually large response. At a time when there was no threat of war and invasion, it created a sense of crisis, which usually occurs only in times of disasters. The book is devoted to specific events, but differs in breadth and depth inherent in an outstanding work of literature. William Hezlitt, Matthew Arnold and Leslie Stephen in one voice called Burke a master of English prose. Thoughts are the most striking manifestation of his talent.
Last years of his life Burke had been filled with anxiety and frustration. Six months after the publication of Reflections, in May 1791, he finally and publicly broke with Fox because of discrepancies in the evaluation of the French Revolution. At some time this gap has led to the isolation of Burke in the Whig, he issued a new appeal to the old Whig (An Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs) in August 1791, to prove that his position derives from traditional principles of the Party. Subsequent events confirmed the correctness of Burke, at least, attracted to his side of the party elite and public opinion. But even the war with France, which began in January 1793, was not a crusade against the Jacobins, had called Burke. He never ceased to remind the Government and the public about the need for stronger, consistent with other European powers of action, which could eliminate the danger of revolution.
Burke's resignation in June 1794 did not lead to rest in his soul. Personal tragedy - the death of her only son, Richard, in August 1794 - Burke plunged into despair, his grief was compounded by a sense of impending national and global catastrophe. It is a painful decision for acquittal of Warren Hastings in 1795. Burke worried about developments in Ireland, and he believed that to prevent a revolution in this country can only significant concessions to the Catholic majority. Burke supported the appropriate measures Earl Fitzwilliam as Lord Lieutenant, and felt responsible for the failure of this process, when Pitt as prime minister disavowed action Fitzwilliam. Errors made by a European coalition against France, led him to despair.
But despair not mean surrender. Although Burke considered himself after the death of his son goner, he continued to help with advice and support his friends and students: Fitzwilliam, of Portland, William Wyndham, as well as Irish patriots and French refugees. Correspondence of Burke in these years is more intense than in any other period of his life. Those who thought it disposed of the game, wrong. The young Duke of Bedford in the late 1795 unfriendly replied in the House of Lords on Burke and the amount assigned to a pension. His response - the famous letter to the noble lord (Letter to a Noble Lord) - Burke dealt a crushing blow to the Duke. This letter, some historians believe "the most delightful riposte in the history of English literature '.
There was a more serious reason in order to express their thoughts about what is happening. The war with France, took place without much success, and, of course, in England there were people who wanted to negotiations and peace. For Burke, nothing could be more shameful. He thought of all the French leaders 'robbers and murderers' - well Danton, Robespierre and Directory. To believe that such people can agree, Burke believed, would engage in self-deception. At the end of 1795, provoked by peaceful sentiments that were expressed in a pamphlet of his old friend, Lord Auckland, Burke began the first of his letters about the world with regicides. This work was never completed, but as the piece was published after the death of Burke. In Proceedings (Works) Burke's first letter located on the fourth place. Letters, . which are now called the first and second (in reality two parts of a whole), . published in autumn 1796 under the name Two letters, . addressed to members of this parliament on the proposals for peace with the Directory regicides (Two Letters ..,
. on Proposals for Peace with the Regicide Directory of France). The letter, called today the third (written last), like the fourth, has the nature of the fragment and was published in 1797 after the death of the author.
The third letter was never finished. Burke died in Beaconsfield (Buckinghamshire County) 9 July 1797.