BURNS Robert (Burns Robert)( Scottish poet.)
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Biography BURNS Robert (Burns Robert)
Born January 25, 1759 in Alloway (county Er) in the family gardener and farmer-tenant William Burns. Robert and his brother Gilbert for two years walked to school. In 1765 my father rented the farm Mount Oliphant, and Robert of 12 years rotten as an adult worker, malnourished and overtax the heart. He read everything that knocked the arm - from the penny pamphlets to Shakespeare and Milton. In school, he heard only the English speech, but from the mother and older workers and from the same language pamphlets joined the Scottish ballads, songs and tales.
In 1777 his father moved to a farm near Lohli Tarboltona, and Robert began a new life. In Tarboltone he found a company on the soul and it soon became verhovodit. In 1780, Burns and his friends organized a gay 'Club Bachelors', and in 1781 he joined a Masonic lodge. February 13, 1784 my father died, and the remaining money after Robert and Gilbert moved the family to a farm near Mossgil Mohlina. Even earlier, in 1783, Robert began to write in a notebook his youthful poems and rather turgid prose. Relationship with maid Betty Payton led to the birth to his daughter, May 22, 1785. Local clerics used the occasion and laid Burns penance whoredoms, but this did not prevent lay people laugh, reading lists that went to the fair and Holy Willie's Prayer hypocrites.
In early 1784 Burns discovered poetry R. Ferguson and realized that the Scots are not barbaric and moribund dialect and can convey any poetic nuance - from the salty satire to lyric rapture. He developed a tradition of Fergusson, especially in the genre of aphoristic epigrams. By 1785 Burns had already acquired some fame as the author of bright friendly message, dramatic monologues and a satyr.
In 1785, Burns fell in love with Jin Armor (1765-1854), daughter of mohlinskogo contractor Dzh.Armora. Burns gave her a written 'commitment' - a document on the Scottish right to certify the actual, albeit illegal marriage. However, the reputation of Burns was so bad that broke Armor 'commitment' in April 1786 and refused to take the poet in-law. Even before this humiliation Burns decided to emigrate to Jamaica. Is not true that he published his poems in order to obtain money for the road - the thought of this publication came to him later. Printed in Kilmarnoke poems mainly in the Scottish dialect (Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect) went on sale August 1, 1786. Half of the circulation of 600 copies sold by subscription, the rest was sold for a few weeks. Burns to fame almost overnight. Noblemen threw open the doors of their mansions. Armor waived the claim of Betty Payton bought themselves out 20 pounds. September 3, 1786 Jean gave birth to twins.
Local nobility Burns advised to forget about emigration, go to Edinburgh and declare a nationwide subscription. He arrived in the capital on 29 November and with the assistance of other Dzh.Kanningema and concluded on December 14 contract with the publisher W. Krichev. In the winter season Burns was snapped up in a secular society. He patronized the 'Caledonian hunters', the influential members of the club for the elite, at a meeting of the Masonic Grand Lodge of Scotland declared its 'Bard Caledonia'. Edinburgh edition of Poems (published April 21, 1787) gathered about three thousand subscribers, and Burns brought about 500 pounds, including a hundred guineas, for which he disobeyed bad advice, lost Scream copyrights. About half of the proceeds went to the aid of Gilbert and his family in Mossgile
. Before leaving Edinburgh in May, Burns met with Dzh.Dzhonsonom, illiterate engraver and a fanatical lover of Scottish music, which is not long before published the first edition of 'The Museum of Scottish music' ( 'The Scots Musical Museum')
. Since the autumn of 1787 until the end of the life of Burns was actually the editor of this publication: collected texts and melodies, complemented the extant fragments of stanzas of his own, lost or obscene text replaces its. He had succeeded in this, that, without documentary evidence is often impossible to determine where people's texts, and where the texts Burns. For the 'Museum', and after 1792 for a more refined, but less bright 'Selected original Scottish tunes' ( 'Select Collection of Original Scottish Airs', 1793-1805) Dzh.Tomsona he wrote over three hundred texts, each in his own tune.
Burns returned in triumph Mohlin July 8, 1787. Six months is not the glory went to his head, but changed the attitude in the village. Armor warmly received him, and he resumed his relationship with Jin. But Edinburgh maid Peggy Cameron, gave birth to a child from Burns, filed on him in court, and he again went to Edinburgh.
There he met on December 4 formed by a married lady, Agnes Craig M'Lehuz. Three days later, he dislocated his knee and chained to the bed, started to 'Clarinda', as she called herself, a love correspondence. Dislocation had a more significant impact. Burns enjoyed the physician was familiar with the Commissioner of excise in Scotland R. Graham. Upon learning of the poet's desire to serve in the excise, he turned to Graham, he let Burns go through proper training. The poet took his spring 1788 in Mohline and Tarboltone and 14 July, received a diploma. The prospect of an alternative source of income has given him the courage to sign the March 18 contract for the rental of farm Ellislend.
When he learned that Jean pregnant again, parents kicked her out of the house. Burns returned to Mohlin February 23, 1788, and appears to be immediately recognized her as his wife, although the announcement was held until May, and the ecclesiastical court approved their marriage only on August 5. March 3 Jean gave birth to two girls who died soon after. June 11 Burns began work on the farm. By the summer of 1789, it became clear that in the near future Ellislend income will not bring, and in October through the influence of Burns was promoted to the excise in a rural area. He played it perfectly in July 1790 he was transferred to Dumfries. In 1791, Burns refused to rent Ellislenda, moved to Dumfries and began living on a salary of excise.
The creative work of Burns for three years in Ellislende confined mainly to the texts for dzhonsonovskogo 'Museum', with one major exception - the story in verse O'Shenter Tam (Tam O'Shanter). In 1789, Burns met with Fr.Grouzom collector of antiquities, which was two-volume anthology Scottish Antiquity (The Antiquities of Scotland). Therefore proposed to give him in an anthology of woodcut depicting alloueyskoy church, and he agreed - on condition that Burns will write to the engraving of the legend of Witchcraft in Scotland. Thus arose one of the best ballads in the history of literature.
Meanwhile, passions flared up around the French Revolution, which Burns received with enthusiasm. Send inquiry on the loyalty of public servants. By December 1792 on Burns had accumulated so many denunciations that came in Dumfries Excise Chief William Corbett, in order to personally conduct investigations. Through the efforts Corbett and Graham all over the fact that Burns' obligation not to talk too much. He still intends to promote the service, but in 1795 he began to lose health: impact on rheumatic disease in adolescence, even a weakened heart. Burns died July 21, 1796.
Burns lauded as a romantic poet - in the everyday and the literary sense of the definition. However, Burns' world view was based on practical common sense of the peasants, among whom he grew up. From Romanticism, he really had nothing to do. On the contrary, his work marked the last flowering of Scottish poetry in their native language - poetry, lyrical, earthy, satirical, sometimes mischievous, traditions which were laid R. Henrisonom (ca. 1430 - ca. 1500) and William Dunbar (c.. 1460 - ca. 1530), forgotten in the era of the Reformation and revived in the 18. A. Ramsey and R. Ferguson.