. One of the writers of the 19. That determined the development of modern poetry
. Born April 9, 1821 in Paris. Baudelaire
's school years were nothing remarkable and resulted in confusion: he was expelled from the Lyceum of Louis the Great of the minor offense and appoint him guardian. In 1839, Baudelaire
exam for Bachelor. Entered the National School of Charters, he immersed himself in student life of the Latin Quarter, which ran into debt. The family put up with him in students two years. My stepfather paid the debts, after which the Baudelaire
sent to two years in India. Buffeted by the storm the ship arrived just before the island of Mauritius, where Baudelaire
persuaded the captain to send him back to France, and in early 1841 he was already in Paris.
Two months after his return, adulthood, Baudelaire
came into possession of the inheritance, which is about 75 thousand francs. In 1844 the family was horrified to find that he spent half of the capital. To manage the remaining money was put in charge of the court-appointed advisor. Probably, in the same year he met the mulatto Jeanne Duval, who worked statistics in small Parisian theater. It was the first of the three known mistresses Baudelaire
and became famous as the Black Venus, and inspired him to create the best of the three cycles of Flowers of Evil (Les Fleurs du mal, 1857). Around 1847 Baudelaire
met Marie Debray, his second mistress. As Jeanne Duval, she was an actress. Their gap in 1859 was marked by the creation of beautiful poem Madonna (included in the second edition of Flowers of Evil, 1861). In terms of fame, not history, second place among friends Baudelaire
belongs Apollonia Sabatier, inspired him to Venus cycle White.
In 1846 or 1847 Baudelaire
met with some stories of Poe in French translation. After a brief enthusiasm for politics in 1848 and participation in the barricade fighting on the side of the rebels Baudelaire
in the next seven years translating the stories and published essays by writers and artists, winning the reputation as the most subtle criticism of his era.
Two volumes of essays of Baudelaire
- Romantic Art (L'Art romantique, publ. 1868) and aesthetic rarity (Curiosits esthtiques) - includes articles on literature and art, written for the occasion, in order to obtain money for food or get rid of another creditor. It is also uneven, as well as his poetry, they are superior to the best samples of his time with brilliant insights and ability to penetrate into the heart of the problem that is found in estimates of romanticism and critical comments on the work of Hugo and Balzac. From the perspective of psychology, . great interest are the diaries of, . published in books Vomiting (Fuses) and The Naked Heart (Mon Coeur mis nu); such critical articles and amazingly long story Fangarlo (La Fangarlo), . are highly contribute to the understanding of his work,
In April 1857 his stepfather died suddenly. Two months later came the first edition of Flowers of Evil, Baudelaire
and prosecuted as the author of an immoral writings. According to the verdict, he had to remove six poems, and pay a fine of three hundred francs, later reduced to fifty. With all his contempt for the bourgeois Baudelaire
was shocked by the verdict and tried to rehabilitate himself, putting forward its candidacy to the French Academy and later, on the advice Sh.O.Sent-Beuve, he refused to participate in the contest.
Flowers of Evil - not just a collection of poems, but the whole poetic work, which is the second edition has been divided into six 'chapters', constituting a kind of autobiography, modern soul in her life journey. The first and longest chapter, Spleen and Ideal (Spleen et Idal), shows the poet, torn by opposing forces, which are either carried away by it at the bottom, or ascends to heaven. It was a harbinger of cycles on art and love, but the chapter concludes with a reckless dive into the swamp of boredom, or 'spleen'. In the second chapter, the Paris paintings (Tableaux Parisiens), the poet during the day wandering the streets of Paris, goading his misery among depressing indifference of the modern city. In the third chapter, wine (Le Vin), he tries to find oblivion in drink and drugs. The fourth chapter, Flowers of Evil (Fleurs du mal) - a series of temptations, countless sins, to whom he could not resist. In the fifth chapter, Mutiny (Rvolte), cast a fierce challenge to fate. The last chapter, The Death (La Mort), means the end of journey. Movement of the plot is reflected in the composition of the book 'chapters', in forming a 'head' of different cycles and, finally, in some poems, which, like the entire collection as a whole, often also embody a kind of cycle. The symbol of the liberation of the sea appears, holding such an important place in the poetry of Baudelaire
, both a symbol of endless, exhausting whirl, which can not give rest and relaxation.
Flowers of Evil had a tremendous influence on contemporary poetry. French followers of Baudelaire
- St.Mallarme, A. Rimbaud, T. Corbiere, Jean Laforgue, etc.. - Began with frank imitation of his manner. The strong influence of Baudelaire
's works can be found in RM Rilke, Hofmannsthal and G.fon R. Demel (Germany), R. Dario (Latin America); AK Swinburne and A. Simons (England); H. Crane ( USA).
The second edition of Flowers of Evil appeared in 1861. Six convicted of poems have been removed, but replaced them among the works were several masterpieces. For some time, Baudelaire
cherished a dream to move to Belgium, where there was no censorship. He had hoped to publish it without his collection of notes, lectures, and earn money to find temporary shelter from creditors. From all points of view, this trip turned out to be disaster. Publishing plans Baudelaire
collapsed, lectures ended in failure, the Belgians had failed him in the payment of the fee. In April 1865 in the Jesuit church of Saint-Loup at Namur he had a stroke. Partially paralyzed, he lost his speech. He moved to Paris and placed in a private hospital. Baudelaire
died in Paris on August 31, 1867.