. Illegitimate son of a merchant Boccaccio
del fu Kellin, more commonly known as Bokkachino of Certaldo, a town south-west of Florence, Boccaccio
was born in 1313 supposedly in Paris, his mother, Jeanne, was French
By the time of birth of his son Bokkachino worked at the Florentine banking house of Bardi. In 1316 or slightly later withdrew his employers in Florence. He took with him his son, and the early years of the future writer had in beneficial atmosphere of the city, where at that time flourishing commerce and art. Under the guidance of Giovanni
da Strada, the father of the poet Dzanobi, he studied the 'grammar' (Latin). Later, my father decided to acquaint him with the 'arithmetic' - the art to account.
In 1327 Badri house Bokkachino sent to Naples Naples bank branch manager. In Naples, Giovanni
, already dreaming of the glory of the poet, gave to the disciples to the Florentine merchant. In this capacity, he, in his words, wasted six years. Another six years were spent on the study of canon law, again at the insistence of his father. Only then Bokkachino appointed Giovanni
Living in Naples highly developed Boccaccio
. The son of an influential banker, not just lend money to King Robert of Anjou (1309-1343), he had access to the court of an enlightened monarch, where he met soldiers, sailors, wealthy merchants and philosophers. At the same Boccaccio
experienced several amorous passion, until March 30, 1336 in the little church of San Lorenzo has not met a woman, Maria d'Akvino that was incorporated into the history of literature under the name of Fiammetta. For her, or write about it almost all the early books of Boccaccio
. Initially, the novel developed in the best tradition of courtly love, but soon became the mistress of Giovanni
Maria. It has long kept his loyalty. Stung by a betrayal of Boccaccio
wrote a sonnet - one of the most evil accusations of Italian literature.
In 1339 Badri house crashed. Bokkachino lost his job, Giovanni
lost content. For a time he tried to survive on meager income from a small estate under Pedigrotta, presented to him by his father. After the death of her stepmother and half-brother, 11 January 1341, he returned to Florence. In Boccaccio
's life troubles had only the friendship of Petrarch, whom he met in 1350 when he came to Florence, and tender love for his illicit daughter Violante, whose death he mourned in the Latin poems. Boccaccio
Florence appointed its treasurer, requested the purchase from the city of Naples Prato and at least seven times sent with important diplomatic missions, of them three times - to the various popes. Of duty, he traveled all over Italy, visited in Avignon and, probably, in the Tyrol. The last years of his life Boccaccio
were bleak. As a young man, he fell in love with a widow, which has exposed him to ridicule. In response to Boccaccio
wrote a little book Raven (Il Corbaccio, 1355) - a masterpiece of misogyny, even for the era when it was in the order of things. Several years later, he was visited by a monk Joachim Chaney and finds fault with Boccaccio
for the 'sinful' tone works, persuaded him to burn all their books. Only a letter writer Petrarch deterred from doing so. Then Boccaccio
made a trip to Naples, but he was not expecting nor the promised work, or a hearty welcome. Then he went home his father, in Certaldo.
The last time Boccaccio
appeared publicly in 1373, when he was asked to read Florence lectures on Dante. But the strength of his left, and conceived of the course, he read only a small part. Boccaccio
died at Certaldo December 31, 1375.
The artistic heritage of Boccaccio
's vast and diverse. In addition to the novel in novels Decameron (Decamerone, . 1348-1351), . He wrote four great poem, . novel and novella, . allegory in the spirit of Dante Ameto (L'Ameto, . 1342), . satire Raven, . biographical book of life of Dante Alighieri (Vita di Dante, . 1360-1363) and comments to the 17 songs of his Divine Comedy, . Four of the treatise in Latin, . many poems, . letters and Latin eclogues,
Some of the works of Boccaccio
had a considerable influence on subsequent generations of writers. Thus, the poem Filostrato (Filostrato, 1338) inspired the creation of Chaucer Troila and Hrizeidy, about 2700 lines of which - almost a literal translation of Boccaccio
. Another great poem by Boccaccio
, Tezeida (Teseida, 1339), written in octaves, Chaucer gave the same story for the history of the knight in the Canterbury Tales. In 1344-1346 Boccaccio
wrote a poem Fezolanskie nymphs (Ninfale Fiesolano), exquisite idyll, unsurpassed even in the heyday of Renaissance literature.
Novels Filocolo (Filocolo, 1336) and Elegy of Madonna Fiammetta (L'Elegia di madonna Fiammetta, 1343), despite some verbosity, give a vivid and truthful picture of life in Naples and of the role it Boccaccio
. The first is a retelling of an old French legend Floris and Blancheflour. The second is deeply autobiographical, and is considered the first psychological novel. Of the scientific papers only Boccaccio
Life of Dante Alighieri and attached to her comments to the Divine Comedy (Commento alla Commedia) retain the scientific value. They are based on materials provided by his nephew Dante, Andrea Pozzi, his close friends Dino Perini and Piero Giardino, his daughter, Antonia (in monasticism sister Beatrice), and possibly his sons Pietro and Jacopo. With Boccaccio
originated the cult of Dante. Latin treatises Boccaccio
about the misadventures of famous men (De casibus virorum illustribus), about famous women (De claris mulieribus), On the genealogy of the gods (De genealogia deorum gentilium) and on the mountains, forests, sources ... (De montibus, silvis, fontibus, lacubus, etc.), Losing a lot because of the traditional Medieval dogmatic approach, interesting biographical references and have historical significance as examples predgumanisticheskoy literature.
Noteworthy events were the impetus for the creation of the Decameron. In 1348 in Europe was raging epidemic of bubonic plague, which killed 25 million people. The disease has not passed and Italy, including Florence. The plague has affected and manners. Some saw it as avenging hand of the Lord, and this has led to a powerful surge of religiosity. Other - they were the majority - made life principle 'carpe diem' - 'catch the moment'. These include Boccaccio
Long before he was collecting funny and interesting parables, stories and anecdotes. The sources were very different: Oriental tales and French Fabliau, . Roman acts (Gesta Romanorum), and early collections of short stories, . such, . how Novellino (Cento Novelle Antiche) and The Adventures of Sicilian (L'Avventuroso Ciciliano), . palace, and street gossip and, . Finally, . actual events of that time,
. Wiser by experience of life and endured disasters in the prime of his life, Boccaccio
was ready to begin processing them. Having the narrators of three young men (each of them, . perhaps, . represent any kind of party identity of the author) and seven young women (probably, . his beloved), . that, . fleeing from the plague, . leave Florence, . Boccaccio
has compiled all the stories in a single, . integral work,
Despite the obvious influence of Cicero's mannerism, language Decameron lively, colorful, rich, elegant and melodic. Boccaccio
gallant, balanced, more tempted, at times cynical but always humane. He left us a picture of the brilliant and tumultuous era - the fall of the Middle Ages. From Decameron drew the images and ideas of Chaucer, William Shakespeare, Moliere, Madame de SцLvignцL, Dzh.Svift, J. Lafontaine, JW Goethe, D. Kitts, Dzh.G.Bayron and HW Longfellow.