Simon Bolivar (Bolvar Simon)( The statesman, one of the leaders of the Revolutionary War the Spanish colonies in South America.)
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Biography Simon Bolivar (Bolvar Simon)
Born July 24, 1783 in Caracas in a noble family. In 1799 he went to Spain to complete their education, five years later, watched the ceremony in Paris on Napoleon's coronation. After leaving Paris, Bolivar, along with his mentor Simon Rodriguez traveled to Italy.
In 1810, after the occupation of Spain by Napoleon's troops, Bolö-var returned to his homeland and, together with F. Miranda formed armed detachments, soon defeated by the Spaniards. July 31, 1812 Miranda signed an act of surrender, after which he was imprisoned. Bolö-var fled to New Granada (sovr. Colombia), proclaiming the independence of. New military campaign in Venezuela ended August 6, 1813 triumphal entry into Caracas. Popular in the national environment and in the circles of Creole aristocracy, Bolivar was showered with honors and received the title of the Liberator of Venezuela. In 1814, after the restoration of Ferdinand VII, the Spaniards returned to power in Venezuela. Bolö-var left the country, going first in Curacao, and then in New Granada. Here, on behalf of the Congress defeated the 'unitary republic' Cundinamarca and founded the Federalist Party. In May 1815 he resigned and settled in Jamaica.
Formed a small detachment of volunteers in Haiti, Bolivar 1 January 1817 landed on the Venezuelan coast. This time he was fighting on the plains north of the Orinoco, which was supported by the guerrillas Llanera. After winning several victories over the Spaniards, was elected commander of the liberation army. Reorganize the army, made the transition through the Andes into New Granada and defeated the Spaniards in the Battle of Boyacö¦ on Aug. 7, 1819. Congress of Patriotic Forces, convened in Angostura in December 1819, proclaimed the republic of Gran Colombia, which included Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador, and elected President of Bolivar. When Venezuela was completed after the Battle of Carabobo in June 1821, and by July 1922 Bolivar and General Antonio JosöL de Sucre liberated Ecuador.
While Bolivar liberated the north, the Argentine General Jose de San Martin fought with the Spaniards in the south. San Martö-n defeated the Spaniards in Chile, and successfully moved to the capital Lima, Peru. 26 and 27 July 1822 took place on the famous 'Guayaquil date'. After the meeting, San Martin left Peru and left political activity, and Bolivar went to the honorable mission to end the war for independence. Army of Bolivar and Sucre invaded Peru in 1824 in the battles of Junö-n and Ayacucho defeated the Spanish troops. In 1825 Sucre completed the rout of the Spaniards in the Upper Peru (now Bolivia).
Political views Bolivar embodied in the adopted 16 May 1825 Constitution of Upper Peru, which in his honor was renamed the Republic of Bolivia. The Constitution provided for the election of the president and the four legislative chambers, and also introduced an electoral and administrative system, soon proved to be ineffective. The initiative of Bolivar in Panama, was convened by the Continental Congress (June 22 - July 25, 1826), . which was attended only by representatives of Colombia, . Peru, . Mexico and Central America and the none of the solutions which was not ratified by national parliaments,
. Soon after infighting in the government of Gran Colombia. In November 1826 Bolivar arrived in Bogota, and in early 1827, after a five-year absence, he returned to Caracas to suppress anti-government rebellion. In September 1828 announced elections to a constituent assembly, which began work in April next year.
Bolivar's desire to adopt the amendments to the constitution for the consolidation and centralization of power was met with fierce resistance from Colombian Vice President Francisco de Santander and his supporters, the Federalists. Convinced of the impossibility of achieving the legitimate way, Bolivar made a coup d'etat, which, however, could not stop the collapse of Gran Colombia. In January 1830 he resigned a few months later for a short time regained the presidency, and April 27, 1830 finally withdrew from political activity. Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador in a separate state. Bolö-var went to Cartagena, with the intention to emigrate to Jamaica or Europe. Died Bolivar, near Santa Marta (Colombia) 17 December 1830.