Ludwig Boltzmann (Boltzmann Ludwig)( Austrian physicist.)
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Biography Ludwig Boltzmann (Boltzmann Ludwig)
(1844-1906), born February 20, 1844 in Vienna, the family servant. At the end of high school in Linz entered the University of Vienna, where he studied under J. Stephen and J. Loschmidt. In 1866 he defended his doctoral dissertation, he worked as an assistant to Stephen, then became assistant professor at Vienna University. In 1869-1873 and 1876-1889 - professor of theoretical physics at the University of Graz. By this time the flowering of creative activity is the Boltzmann. In 1886-1872 he conducted important research in the field of kinetic theory of gases, and led law distribution of gas molecules over velocities, summing up the Maxwell distribution in the case when the gas is acted upon by external forces (Boltzmann statistics). Formula of the equilibrium Boltzmann distribution was the basis of classical statistical physics. In 1872, . applying statistical methods to the kinetic theory of gases, . derived the master equation gazov.Ustanovil fundamental relationship between the entropy of a physical system and the probability of its state, . proved the statistical nature of thermodynamics II, . that indicated the failure of the hypothesis 'heat death' of the Universe,
. In the same year proved the so-called H-theorem, argued that the H-function, characterizing the state of a closed system can not grow in time. These studies laid the groundwork Boltzmann thermodynamics of irreversible processes.
Boltzmann first applied the laws of thermodynamics to the processes of radiation and in 1884 theoretically deduced the law of thermal radiation, according to which the energy radiated by an ideal black body is proportional to the fourth power of absolute temperature. In 1879 this law was established experimentally by J. Stephen and is now known as the Stefan - Boltzmann.
Boltzmann was not only a theoretician, but the experimenter. He spent the first experiments to verify the validity of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, measured the dielectric constants of various substances, investigated the polarization of dielectrics.
In 1890 the scientist moved from Graz to Munich, where until 1894 held the chair of theoretical physics. Then he worked in Vienna and the University of Leipzig. In the last years of his life lecturing on physics.
Main results of scientific research presented in his basic lecture courses - lectures on Maxwell's theory of electricity and light (Vorlesungen ber Maxwells Theorie der Elektrizitat und des Lichtes, Bd. 1-2, 1891-1893), Lectures on the theory of gases (Vorlesungen ber Gastheorie, Bd. 1-2, 1896-1898), Lectures on the Principles of Mechanics (Vorlesungen ber die Prinzipien der Mechanik, Bd. 1-3, 1897-1920).
Life Boltzmann tragically cut short: he committed suicide Sept. 5, 1906 in Duino (Italy).