Botticelli, Sandro (Botticelli Sandro)( One of the most outstanding artists of the Renaissance.)
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Biography Botticelli, Sandro (Botticelli Sandro)
Born in Florence in 1444 into a family of tanners skin Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (nicknamed Botticelli, meaning 'little barrel', actually belonged to his elder brother). After initial training at the jeweler ca. 1462 Botticelli entered the studio of one of the leading painters of Florence, Fra Filippo Lippi. Style Filippo Lippi to Botticelli had enormous influence, manifested mainly in certain types of individuals, ornamental detail and coloring. In his works the late 1460-ies fragile, flat linearity and Grace, adopted from Filippo Lippi, replaced by a more powerful interpretation of the figures and the new reflection plastic volume. Around the same time, Botticelli began to apply vigorous ocher shade for the transfer of skin color - reception, which was characteristic of his style. These changes are manifested in its entirety in the earliest documented painting by Botticelli Allegory of force (approximately. 1470, Florence, Uffizi Gallery) and in less pronounced form in the two early Madonna (Naples, Capodimonte Gallery, Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum). Two famous twin tracks history of Judith (Florence, Uffizi), is also related to the number of early works by the master (approx. 1470), illustrates another important aspect of Botticelli's painting: a lively and capacious narrative, in which the combined expression and action, with complete clarity revealing the dramatic essence of the plot. They also found already begun changing color, which becomes more vivid and saturated, in contrast to the pale palette, Filippo Lippi, prevailing in a very early painting by Botticelli - Adoration of the Magi (London, National Gallery).
Among the works of Botticelli, only a few have reliable dating of many of his paintings have been dated on the basis of stylistic analysis. Some of the most famous works include a 1470-m year: painting SW. Sebastian (1473), the earliest image of the naked body in the work of a master; Adoration of the Magi (c.. 1475, Uffizi). Two portrait - a young man (Florence, Pitti Gallery), and Florentine ladies (London, Victoria and Albert Museum) - date from the early 1470-ies. Somewhat later, probably in 1476, was made a portrait of Giuliano de 'Medici, brother of Lorenzo (Washington, National Gallery). The works of this decade, showing a gradual growth of artistic mastery of Botticelli. He used the techniques and principles set out in the first outstanding theoretical treatise on Renaissance painting, written by Leon Battista Alberti (On Painting, 1435-1436), and experimented with the prospect. By the end of 1470-ies in the works of Botticelli disappeared stylistic variations and direct borrowing from other artists, inherent in his early works. By this time he has confidently mastered quite an individual style: the figures of characters become strong structure, . and their contours of an amazing blend of clarity and elegance with vigor, dramatic expressiveness achieved by the connection is active and deep inner experience,
. All these qualities are present in the fresco SW. Augustine (Florence, Church Onisanti), written in 1480 as a pair composition to Ghirlandaio fresco SW. Jerome.
Objects surrounding St.. Augustine, . - Desk, . Books, . scientific instruments, . - Demonstrate mastery of Botticelli in the genre of still life: they are depicted with precision and clarity, . reveals the artist's ability to grasp the essence of the form, . but it does not catch your eye and do not distract from the main,
. Perhaps this interest in still life is connected with the influence of Flemish painting, admired Florentine 15 in. Of course, the Netherlands art influenced the interpretation of the landscape at Botticelli. Leonardo da Vinci wrote, . that 'our Botticelli' showed little interest in the landscape: ': he says, . it is a waste of time, . because they simply throw paint-soaked sponge on the wall, . and it will leave a spot, . which it will be possible to distinguish a beautiful landscape ',
. Botticelli are usually satisfied using conventional motives for backgrounds of his paintings, a variety of motives include Flemish painting, such as Gothic churches, castles and walls, to achieve the romantic and picturesque effect.
In 1481 Botticelli was invited by Pope Sixtus IV in Rome together with Cosimo Rosselli and Ghirlandaio in order to write the frescoes on the side walls of the newly-built the Sistine Chapel. He completed three of these murals: Scenes from the life of Moses, the healing of the leper and the temptation of Christ and the punishment of Korea, Dathan and Abirona. All three murals brilliantly solved the problem of presenting complicated theological program in clear, light and lively dramatic scenes, while fully used compositional effects
. After his return to Florence, . perhaps, . in late 1481 or early 1482, . Botticelli wrote his famous paintings on mythological themes: Spring, . Pallas and the Centaur, . The Birth of Venus (all in the Uffizi) and Venus and Mars (London, . National Gallery), . belonging to one of the most famous works of the Renaissance, and constituting a genuine masterpieces of Western art,
. Characters and plots of these paintings are inspired by the works of ancient poets, particularly Lucretius and Ovid, as well as the mythology. They feel the influence of ancient art, a good knowledge of classical sculpture and drawings from her, had a wide distribution in the Renaissance. Thus, the migration of spring back to the classical group of the three Graces, and pose of Venus Birth of Venus - a type of Venus Pudica (Venus shy).
Some scholars see in these pictures the visual embodiment of the basic ideas of the Florentine Neoplatonists, especially Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499). However, supporters of this hypothesis ignores sensory origin in three scenes depicting Venus and the glorification of purity and innocence, which, undoubtedly, is the subject of Pallas and the Centaur. The most plausible hypothesis that all four paintings were written on the occasion of the wedding. They are the most remarkable surviving works of this genre of painting, which glorifies marriage and the virtues associated with the birth of love in his heart, chaste and beautiful bride. The same ideas are central to the four compositions, . illustrating the story of Boccaccio Nastagio degli Honest (located in different collections), . and two frescoes (Louvre), . written around 1486 on the occasion of marriage of the son of one of the closest associates of the Medici,
Magic grace, beauty, wealth of imagination and a brilliant performance, inherent in the paintings on mythological themes, there are also several famous altar Botticelli, written during the 1480-ies. Among the best are owned Bardi altar with the image of the Virgin and Child with St.. John the Baptist (1484) and the Annunciation Chestello (1484-1490, Uffizi). But in the Annunciation Chestello already first signs of affectation, . which gradually increased in the later works of Botticelli, . led him away from the fullness and richness of nature mature period of creativity to the style, . in which the artist admires the features of their manners,
. The proportions of the figures are violated to enhance the psychological expressiveness. This style in one form or another characteristic of the works of Botticelli 1490's and early 1500-ies, . even for an allegorical paintings Defamation (Uffizi), . in which the artist elevates own work, . associating it with the creation of Apelles, . the greatest of Greek artists,
. Two paintings, . written after the fall of the Medici in 1494 and under the influence of sermons Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), . - Crucifixion (Cambridge, . Massachusetts, . Fogg Art Museum) and the Mystical Nativity (1500, . London, . National Gallery), . - Represent the embodiment of unshakable faith in the revival of Botticelli Church,
. These two paintings reflect a rejection of secular artist Florence Medici era. Other works of masters such as Scenes from the life of a Roman Virginia (Bergamo, Accademia Carrara) and Scenes from the life of a Roman Lucretia (Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum), expressing his hatred for the tyranny of the Medici.
Preserved very few drawings by Botticelli, although it is known that he was often commissioned designs for fabrics and prints. Of particular interest is his series of illustrations for Dante's Divine Comedy. Deeply thoughtful comments to the great graphic poem largely unfinished.
About 50 paintings in full or in large part to be painted by Botticelli. He was the head of the flourishing studio, worked in the same genre as the master himself, which create products of different quality. Many of the paintings of Botticelli registered in his own hand or made on his plan. Nearly all the typical pronounced flatness and linearity in the interpretation of form, combined with frank Mannerism. Botticelli died in Florence on May 17, 1510.