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Bertolt Brecht (Brecht Bertolt)

( German dramatist and poet.)

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(1898-1956)
Born February 10, 1898 in Augsburg. After a real school, in 1917-1921 he studied philosophy and medicine at the University of Munich. As a student wrote the play Baal (Baal, 1917-1918) and Drums in the Night (Trommeln in der Nacht, 1919). Last, set the Munich Chamber Theater on Sept. 30, 1922, won the prize of. Kleist. Brecht was a playwright Chamber Theater.
Autumn of 1924 he moved to Berlin, received a similar place in the German theater in M. Reinhardt. Approximately in 1926 became a freelance artist, he studied Marxism. The following year came the first book of poems Brecht, as well as the short version of the play Mahogany, his first work in collaboration with the composer K. Vejle. Their Threepenny Opera (Die Dreigroschenoper) was a huge success shown on Aug. 31, 1928 in Berlin, and then throughout Germany. From this moment until the Nazis came to power, Brecht has written five musicals, known as 'learning play' ( 'Lehrstcke'), to music by Weill, Hindemith and H. Eisler.

February 28, 1933, the day after the burning of the Reichstag, Brecht left Germany and settled in Denmark. In 1935 he was deprived of German citizenship. Brecht wrote poetry and sketches for the anti-Nazi movements, . in 1938-1941 created four largest his plays - Life of Galileo (Leben des Galilei), . Mother Courage and Her Children (Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder), . A good man out Sezuana (Der gute Mensch von Sezuan) and Mr Punta and his servant Matti (Herr Puntila und sein Knecht Matti),
. In 1940 the Nazis invaded Denmark, . and Brecht was forced to leave in Sweden, . and then to Finland in 1941, he went through the Soviet Union in the U.S., . where he wrote The Caucasian Chalk Circle (Der kaukasische Kreidekreis, . 1941) and two pieces, . and also worked on the English version of Galileo,
.

After leaving America in November 1947, the writer was in Zurich, where he created his main theoretical work of Small organon (Kleines Organon, 1947) and the last completed play Days of the Commune (Die Tage der Commune, 1948-1949). In October 1948 he moved to the Soviet sector of Berlin, and January 11, 1949 where the premiere of Mother Courage in his production, with his wife Helen Weigel in the title role. At the same time they formed their own troupe, 'Berliner Ensemble', for which Brecht adapted or put about twelve pieces. In March 1954, staff received the status of State Theater.

Brecht was always a controversial figure, especially in a divided Germany, the last years of his life. In June 1953, after the riots in East Berlin was criticized for his loyalty to the regime, and many of the West boycotted the theaters of his play. In 1954 Brecht received the Lenin Prize.

Brecht died in East Berlin on August 14, 1956.





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Helen Weigel (Weigel)
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Gunter VAYZENBORN (Weisenborn)

Bertolt Brecht (Brecht Bertolt), photo, biography
Bertolt Brecht (Brecht Bertolt), photo, biography Bertolt Brecht (Brecht Bertolt)  German dramatist and poet., photo, biography
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