Jerome Seymour Bruner (Bruner Jerome Seymour)( American psychologist and educator.)
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Biography Jerome Seymour Bruner (Bruner Jerome Seymour)
Born in New York on October 1, 1915. He was educated at Duke University, then at Harvard, where he defended his Ph.D. in 1941. In 1941-1945 studied the problems of political intelligence and psychological warfare. In 1950 he became a professor of psychology at Harvard University. From 1960 to 1972, along with George Miller directed the Harvard Center for Cognitive Studies, . where data and methods of experimental psychology, . Linguistics, . psychology, . Anthropology, . philosophy and artificial intelligence research for the first time were merged into a single discipline - cognitive science,
. Among the works of Bruner - The learning process (The Process of Education, . 1960); studies of the development of cognitive activity (Studies in Cognitive Growth, . 1966, . with RR Olver and P. Greenfield), the process of cognitive activity: infancy (Processes of Cognitive Growth: Infancy, , . possible worlds (Actual Minds, . Possible Worlds, . 1986),
. Early work Bruner refuted idea of perception as a passive recording of events outside world by the senses; scientist suggested, . that perceptual images are formed on the basis of the hypotheses, . which uses the perceiver actively seeking an individual with sensory data, . confirming or refuting certain facts,
Bruner's approach to the formation of concepts emphasizes the role of the different strategies used by a man while trying to determine the category to which the culture considers certain objects. Most of the concepts defined by a number of properties which may be either conjunctive, ie. related (the chair has seat and back), and disjunctive, ie. alternative (the motor is driven by steam or gasoline). Bruner showed that the formation of disjunctive concepts is harder than the formation of conjunctive concepts.
The scientist believed that people actively seeking knowledge beyond the immediately given, and this applies both to children and to adults. Collection of his essays and called - Outside of direct information (Beyond the Information Given, 1973). Bruner studied children's games and has contributed to the modification of the views of Jean Piaget, who believed that in its development, the child inevitably passes the appropriate stage of cognitive. Bruner showed that, if teach children with the use of techniques that allow them to reveal their knowledge, children develop the ability to complex forms of perception and cognition in a much earlier age.