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Bulgakov Sergey Nikolaevich

( Russian philosopher and theologian.)

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Biography Bulgakov Sergey Nikolaevich
(1871-1944)
Born in showers Orel province 16 (28) June 1871. He graduated from the Faculty of Moscow University in 1890 attracted by Marxism, was close to the Social-Democrats. Meaning of further ideological evolution of Bulgakov's quite definitely conveys the title of his book From Marxism to Idealism (1903). He participates in the collections of Problems of Idealism (1902) and Milestones (1909), in the religious-philosophical journals 'New Path' and 'Life Matters', published by 'Path'. Religious-metaphysical position Bulgakov found quite consistent expression in two of his writings: Philosophy of Economy (1912) and Unfading Light (1917). In 1918 he became a priest in 1922 was expelled from Russia. From 1925 and until his death led the Orthodox Theological Institute in Paris.
In philosophical and theological writings of Bulgakov's plays a central role sophiology. Seeing in the teachings of Sophia Vl.S.Soloveva 'most original' element of the metaphysics of unity, . but 'unfinished and unsaid', . Bulgakov Sophian theme is developed from the philosophy of the economy and until his recent theological works: The Comforter (1936) and Bride of the Lamb (1945),
. His theological interpretation of the experience of Sophia as 'the ideal foundation for peace', . Soul Peace, . Eternal Feminine, . uncreated 'eternal way' and even 'fourth hypostasis' was perceived sharply critical of the Orthodox church circles and convicted, . both in Russia, . and abroad,
. In metaphysical terms sophiology Bulgakov - this is an ontological system, . developed in line with the metaphysics of unity and its roots going back to Platonism, . which attempt radical - within the Christian paradigm - justification of the ontological reality of the created world, . Space, . as having its own meaning, . capacity for creative development, . 'living unity of existence',
. In the Light of the unfading argues that 'the ontological foundation of the world is a continuous, uninterrupted Sophian its metaphysical foundations'. World in sophiology Bulgakov is not identical to God - this is the created world, 'brought into existence out of nothing'. But for all its 'secondary' space has 'own divinity, which is creaturely Sophia'. Space - a living whole, a living unity, and he has a soul ( 'entelechy of the world'). Building an ontological hierarchy of being, Bulgakov distinguished ideal, 'eternal Sofia' and the world as 'becoming Sofia'. The idea of Sofia (in its various expressions) plays a key role in Bulgakov's rationale Unity (unity) of being, . Unity, . not recognized in the final analysis, no isolation, . no absolute boundaries between the divine and the created world, . between the beginning of the spiritual and natural (see thinker in his own ideological position of a sort of 'religious materialism', . developed the idea of 'spiritual corporeality', etc.),
. Sophiology Bulgakov to a significant extent determines the nature of his anthropology: the nature of man becomes a 'sighted' and at the same time, people will know exactly 'how the eye of the World Soul', . human personality 'rendered' Sophian 'as its subject or hypostasis',
. The meaning of history as 'sofien': historical human creativity is 'is owned by' eternity, as the expression of the universal 'logic' of the living, animate (Sophian) space. 'Sofia rules of history .., - claimed Bulgakov in the Philosophy of Economy. - Only in Sophian history is a guarantee that out of it something will come '. In anthropology and philosophy of history of the Russian thinker, as, indeed, throughout his work, the boundary between the metaphysical and theological outlook is fairly conventional.

Bulgakov died in Paris on July 13, 1944.


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