Burkhardt, Jakob Christof (Burckhardt Jakob Christoph)( Swiss historian.)
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Biography Burkhardt, Jakob Christof (Burckhardt Jakob Christoph)
Born in Basel on May 25, 1818. He was educated at the universities of Berlin and Bonn, where he studied theology, history and art and was influenced by the German historian Leopold Ranke, Gottfried Kinkel, and Franz Kugler. He taught at the University of Basel and at the local high school until his retirement in 1893. Burkhardt died in Basel on Aug. 8, 1897. Is best known for her interpretation of the Italian Renaissance, which he considered the first mature expression of the spirit of the New Age. Departing from the typical for its era of positivism, and almost no attention to the political, . diplomatic, . military and economic developments, . interest to its predecessors, . He saw the task of the historian first and foremost in the overall assessment and synthesis of past events,
Burckhardt sought to embody the psychology and the ethical values of past eras in a series of specific types, such as the Greeks 'heroic age' or 'universal man' Revival. The life and personality of great people interested in him insofar as he regarded them as creators of 'lifestyles', which give unity and uniqueness of historical epochs. Thus, the Renaissance had been an era of artists who set the tone throughout this period. All activities at the time expressed the desire for beauty - even in politics, where the state was regarded primarily as a 'masterpiece'
. Three of his most famous work: The Age of Constantine the Great (Die Zeit Konstantins des Grossen, 1853), Culture of the Renaissance in Italy (Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien, 1860) and cicerone (Cicerone, 1855) - a study on Italian painting
. His last work, published during his lifetime, was the history of the Renaissance in Italy (Geschichte der Renaissance in Italien, 1867), devoted mainly architecture.
In his book Age of Constantine the Great Burckhardt showed how the collapse of the ancient pagan culture paved the way for the triumph of Christianity. In the culture of the Renaissance in Italy, he developed the thesis that the modern world, characterized primarily by individualism, born in Renaissance Italy. This idea has dominated the historiography of half a century, and today is widely recognized.
After the death of Burckhardt has published several of his less important works, including the history of culture of Greece (Griechische Kulturgeschichte, 4 Bd., 1898-1902), in which he emphasized binds the influence of city-states.