James Buchanan (Buchanan James)( 15 th U.S. President)
Comments for James Buchanan (Buchanan James)
Biography James Buchanan (Buchanan James)
Born near Mersersberga (pc. Pennsylvania), April 23, 1791. He studied in local schools and at Dickinson College, graduating in 1809, was admitted to the Bar in 1812.
In 1814, Buchanan was elected as a Federalist in the House of Representatives for the state of Pennsylvania and before the end of days combined public career with the practice of law. Since 1820 was a member of the House of Representatives, which has remained for ten years. After the dissolution of the Federalist Party for him was not difficult to join the Democrats, Republicans, and when the supporters of Jefferson were divided into factions Clay - Adams and Jackson, Buchanan joined the latter. After he left the House of Representatives in 1831, President E. Jackson persuaded him to become ambassador to Russia, where he stayed for two years. Upon returning to the U.S. in 1834 was elected to the Senate, which remained a member until 1845. Buchanan became the undisputed leader of the Democrats in Pennsylvania and was considered as a possible candidate for the U.S. presidency from the Democratic Party in 1844. However, the convention nominated Dzh.Polka, who after his election, appointed by Secretary of State Buchanan. During the next four years, Buchanan was engaged in diplomatic matters relating to the merger of Texas, the Mexican war, and agreeing with the UK Borders Oregon. Was a strong supporter of the imperialist ideas Shelves.
After the defeat of the Democrats in 1848 Buchanan resigned, settled in his home near Lancaster (pc. Pennsylvania), where he began to think about the plan of the presidential campaign, 1852. He was a leading contender for the Congress, but was defeated in the 49 th round of voting on the 'dark horse' F. Pierce, who after his inauguration, appointed him ambassador to Great Britain. Buchanan was the initiator of Ostend Manifesto, . calling for the annexation of Cuba, . and then made a statement, . that for all disadvantages of slavery, the federal government had no legal right to intervene in this system there, . where it already existed,
. The compromise position on this issue helped him win in 1856 in the 17 th round of voting to become the Democratic candidate for president. With the support of the South and the five northern states, he was elected to the presidency, defeating Dzh.Frimonta and M. Filmora and received 174 electoral votes.
Two days after Buchanan's inauguration, the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Dred Scott, which meant that Congress has no authority to prohibit slavery in unpopulated areas. It was hoped that this will put an end to the debate about slavery, as promised Buchanan in his inaugural address. However, immediately after the announcement of the decision of the Supreme Court controversy erupted with renewed force. Buchanan proposed to retain control over the situation to avoid agitation and abide by the law of the Fugitive Slave. At the beginning of his presidency, he announced support for the principle of popular sovereignty in connection with the problem in Kansas, where fighting escalated prorabovladelcheskih and Anti-Slavery forces. Buchanan, however, departed from this position, tried unsuccessfully to use his influence for admission of Kansas into the Union after the adoption of the state constitution prorabovladelcheskoy Lekomptonskoy. Accusing the antislavery forces in the use of unfair practices in elections, . He received a reply, . that the same methods were used not only for, . Lekomptonsky to push the bill and the compromise English Bill, . but also, . to prevent the election of Douglas S. Senator from Illinois,
. On whose side would neither was true, the result was chaos and uncertainty. Buchanan did not have the moral resolve, confidence and soundness judgments to refer to the controversy in an objective and realistic. Throughout his term he was trying to divert public attention from the issue of slavery. Buchanan insisted on the need to acquire Cuba, advocated the construction of railways and the development of the West and South-West, approved the establishment of 'Pony Express' and the development of telegraph lines.
The campaign of John Brown, his trial and execution contributed to the complete consolidation of the positions of North and South. Buchanan's candidacy for re-election was not considered, but split the Democratic Party as a result of his rupture with the Douglas finally secured disengagement party groups and factional alliances. It is unclear whether all of Buchanan could influence developments in the three-month interval between the election of Lincoln and his inauguration. For several weeks after coming to power a new president, in fact, kept the political course of his predecessor.
After the transfer of power to Lincoln, March 4, 1861 Buchanan went to his farm near Lancaster Uitlend (pc. Pennsylvania). Died Buchanan Uitlende June 1, 1868.